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Department of Education, 

D. A. V. College, Dehradun. 

Exclusively Distributed by : 


Near Government College, 
MEERUT— 25000Z 

Publisher : 

International Publishing House, 
Near Govt. College. 

Meerut — 250002 


5th Revised Edition 1979 

Other Book 


(In Hindi) 

Price ; Rs. lO’OO 

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A Educational Psycho 
A Problems of Indian 
A Mudaliar Commissi 
Sujhava Aur Samiki 
A Kothari Commissio 
Vivechnatmak Adhj 
A Child Development 
Child Psychology 
A Child Development 
Family Relationshif 
A Technology of Teac| 
A Psychology of Teacl 
Learning and De , 

N •:* li HARl 

U' .r-; Ti' i- C t;'r-.rr.i::iori 

. , t 

( ■.';3:.'rr: j.-i 

i.-i-t.-'. c- 196-<-t6 

'3 .‘.A! vaID:-. -• 



roil 'ijii: CAi sp. oi' 



Preface to Fifth Edition 

' ‘ Ciliic.iiioiinl system must inculcate 

so fiiat every inclivicliial should pro- 
‘ '• ' seeiilarisin and democracy and 

V-' ic!!..'!;. strivin;; for tlic realization of princi- 

• h-'rr:;., c.p.inlity and fraternity, enshrined in the 

c !' r Ir <<! Iiaiia, having •;oleninly resolved to consti- 
.. u i.-r. /U mo, riuir Republic and to secure to all 
'.M il econoniic and political ; Z/toVy — of 
.'it',''; ■ t.ii;:-. .ind iipp.iriiHiiiy and to promote among them 
.;s' linn;' the (lii'nilv of individual and the unity of 
, jn onr ( onMid/ci.i .-\ssenil)|y do here by adopt, eract and 
' "un eh c. dll'. conMitiilion ” We look this oath on 26 th 
I 1' -■■■< '.'.hen e .ulojjied our constitution, 
duc.iiion IS (he iiiosi poucifiij tool of social revolution and 
al thanye. Kotliari Commission has stressed this fact 
dlicn 111 its rejjort. What we have achieved during this 
J i- quite clear and now once again we will have to asess 
ve> h'diK.ilioii IS' the back bone of our national develop- 
aiid reasons are to be traced as to why we have failed in 
.ing the desired goals, where the sweet dream of the teachers 
joying the new social status has withered away and why the 
tr’s uiui’/iu caria became futile? 

rile whole structure of our society is squeaking and politics 
ecome the part and parcel of our life. Politics rules over 
llion and educational planners have become the puppet in 
lands of politicians who always give preferences to their 
t ends and contrive the national plans accordingly. This is 
lubject matter of this volume. Readers will find it quite 
hativc and provocative. Kothari Commission’s report, infact, 

■ answer to all the questions related to educational sphere of 
iountry. There is a great need of one National Education 
m with the base of medium of instruction in mother-tongue 

and national language? What has become the fate of nati 
language? The only answer to it — Education should becom' 
subject of centre in toto. 

This fifth edition of the volume presents all these que; 
before the decerned readers. A slight change has been do 
the scheme of book. Three new cliapicrs have been added- 
Panorama of Decade; (ii) Education in Sixth Plan (iii) N< 
Adult Education Programme. These chapters will narra 
story of educational development in the country. 

The author is grateful to those authors, writers, editors 
thoughts have been incorporated in the book; and especi; 
Govt, of India Ministry of Education for reproducing ! 
the most important matter. 

In the last, but not the least, the author is also gr. 
Miss. Bimla Varma Principal D. W. T. College Dehr 
Prof. D.K. Handa, B.T.T. College Sardar Shahr, Pro 
Rahinwal and Dr. S.P. Kulshrestra of D.A.V. Collegt 
Dun for their valuable suggestions which are include, 

Shiv Ratri : 1979 
103-Moti Bazar 
Dehra Dun, 

— Suresh Bhi 

-.;r.’.:on >>;' i::z r-Iv-c-itio;).’.! '.ys!c:ii 
;o f:;r iifc, nc:-!'> ntu! .’.■.pi:.vti'>iis of 

naijon ; 

c iinprovctncnt of education so that the 
standards acfiicvcd arc adcciuatc, keep continually 
rising and, at least in a few sectors, becotnc inter- 
nationally comparable ; and 

expansion of educational facilities broadly on tlie 
basis of manpower needs and with an accent on 
equalization of educational opportunities. 

Report of the Education Commission ; Education 
& National Development (1964-1966) 

Why This Commission ? 

The Government of India had set up a Commission for 
educational development vide No. F. 4113(3)64, E. 1 dated 14th 
•3tt!y, 1964. The Government felt the need of re-evaluation of 
education in the country. The main causes for appointing this 
commission arc given below ; 

1. In spite of educational expansion there is a great dissatis- 
faction about several aspects of educational development. 

2. The country is in need of a great economic and social 
chang e and education is the only way out to bring about the 
desired change. 

3. The Government of India are convineed that education 
is the key to national. prosperity and welfare and that on invest- 
ment is likely to ^j^d'gfeater returns than investment in human 
resources of which the most important component is education. 

4. It is desirable to survey the entire field of educational 
development as the various parts of the educational system 
strongly interact with and influence one another. 

5. While planning the education for India, it must necessarily 
emanate from Indian experience and conditions. 

1. Introduction of the members : Having considered the 
above mentioned aspects, the Government set up a Commission of 
seventeen persons whose names are given below : 

1. Chairman — Prof. Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman, University 
Grants Commission, New Delhi. 

2. Member-Secretary — Shri J. P. Naik, Head of the Deptt. 
of Educational Planning, Administration and Finance. 
Gokhle Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona. 

3. Associate Secretary — Mr. J. F. McDougall. Assistant 
Director, Department of School and Higher Education, 
UNESCO, Paris. 

4. Members — (1) Sliri A.R. Dawood, Former Director, Ex- 
tension Programme for Secondary Education, New Delhj, 

4 Kothari Commission 

(2) Mr. M. L. Elvin, Director Institute of Education, 
University of London, London. (3) Shri A. R. Gopala- 
swami, Director Institute of Applied Man Power Research, 
New Delhi. (4) Dr. V.S. Jha, Former Director of Common 
Wealth Education, Liasion Unit in London. (5) Shri 
P.N. Kirpal, Educational Adviser and Secretary, Ministry 
of Education, Govt, of India, New Delhi. (6) Prof. M.V. 
Mathur, Ex-Vice-Chancellor, Rajasthan University, 
Jaipur. (7) Dr. B. P. Paul, Director, Indian Agricultural 
Research Institute, New Delhi. (8) Kumari S. Panadikar, 
Head of the Department of Education, Karnatak Univer- 
sity, Dharwar (Since-Retired). (9) Prof Roger Revelle, 
Dean of Research, University of California, U. S. A. 
(10) Dr. K. G. Saiyidain, Former Educational Adviser 
to the Government of India, New Delhi. (11) Dr. T. 
Sen*, Rector Jadavpur University, Calcutta. (12) Mr. 
Jean Thomas, Inspector General of Education, France 
and Formerly Assistant Director General of UNESCO. 
(13) S. A. Shumovsky, Director Methodogical Division, 
Ministry of Higher and Special Secondary Education. 
RSFER, Moscow and Professor of Physics, Moscow 
University. (14) Prof. Sadatoshi Ihara, Professor of the 
first Faculty of Science and Technology, Waseda Univer- 
sity, Tokyo. 

2. Main Consideration: The main features of this report 
are — 

1. Introduction of work-experience which includes mannual 

work, production experience, etc., and social service as 
integral part of general education at more or less at all 
level of education. 

2. Stress on moral education and inculcation of a sense of 
social responsibility. Schools should recognize their 
responsibility in facilitating the transition of youth from 
the work of school to the world of work and life. 

3. Vocationalization of Secondary Education. 

4. Strengthening the centres of advance study and setting up 
of a small number of Universities which would aim at 
achieving highest international standards. 

5. Special emphasis on the training and quality of teacher 

for schools. 

^/Vcted as Cabinet Minister in Government of India, New Delhi in 1970. 

Why This Commission ? 5 

<5. Education for agriculture and research in agriculture and 
allied sciences should be given a high priority in the 
scheme of educational reconstruction. Energetic and 
imaginative, steps arc required to draw a reasonable pro- 
portion of talent to go in for advanced study and research 
in agricultural science. 

3. Body of the Report : The whole report is divided into 
four parts. In first part problems are general as, (/) Educational 

"~dnd National Objectives, (2) The Educational System : Structure 
and Standards, (3) Teacher's Status, (4) Teacher's Education, (5) En- 
rolment and Man-power, and {6^ Towards Equalisation of Educatio- 
nal Opportunities. 

In the second part of the report, the following are discussed. 

(1) School Education : Problems of Expansion. 

(2) School Curriculum. 

(3) Teaching methods, Guidance and Evaluation. 

(4) School Education ; Administration & Supervision. 

(5) Higher Education : Objectives and improvement. 

(6) The Governance of Universities. 

(7) Education for Agriculture. 

(8) Vocational, Technical and Engineering Education. 

(9) Science Education and Research. 

(10} Adult Education. 

Third part of this report deals with the implementation of the 
suggested recommendation under the following captions — (/) Edu- 
cational Planning and Administration (2) Educational Finance. 

In the fourth part of this report are given supplementary 
papers and other information which throw light on the working 
and methodology of the Commission. 

The commission had started its work in Oct. 1964 and sub- 
mitted its report on June 29, 1966 to the Union Education Minister. 
The Commission set up 12 Task Forces and 7 Working Groups. 

4. Task Force and Working Groups : Following are the 
task-forces adopted by the commission for the study. 

1. On School Education. 

2. On Higher Education, 

3. On Technical Education. 

4. On Agricultural Education. 

5. On Adult Education. 

6. On Science Education and Research, 

6 Kothari Commission 

7. On Teacher's Training and Teacher^s Status. 

8. On Student Welfare. 

9. On New Techniques and Methods. 

10. On Man -power. 

1 1 . On Educational Administration. 

12. On Educational Finance. 

Apart from task forces, following are the working groups : 

1. On Woman Education. 

2. On the Education of Backward Classes. 

3. On School Building. 

4. On School-Community Relations. 

5. On Satistics. 

6. On Pre-Primary Education. 

7. On School Curriculum. 

The Commission interviewed about 9,000 persons of disting- 
uished public career, scientist, industrialists and scholars in different 
fields. The total expenditure on Commission is Rs. 1,509,185/16 
and it took two years to complete its task. 

The Commission stressed that there is no place for half- 
hearted policies in the days ahead and Education thus needs and 
demands more than anything else, hard-work and dedicated 
service. Educational and national reconstruction are intimately 
interrelated and that perhaps the most effective way of breaking 
the vicious circle in which we find ourselves at present is to begin 
educational reconstruction in a big way. 

The huge and voluminious report put fourth by the commi- 
ssion, shows how we are facing hardships now a days and how 
can we come over these hardships and meet the demand of our 
national development. The Commission did a lot in the field of 
education and it was a unique in the history of Indian Education. 


Education and National 


After pouring tlirough a bird’s eye view on the reports of two 
earlier Commissions, we iiavc realised that the same ideas and 
ideals should be followed by us from the date we achieved free- 
dom. Three decades have passed and still we are standing on a 
cross-road. We don't know our patli. We can’t say that every 
road would lead us to heaven. 

Now we are under the process of social change. At every 
step there is a change and in a changing pattern there is a challenge 
for adjustment in the society. The Commission has tried to solve 
the problem of survival of the fittest. 


(1) Education and Productivity : Education should be related 
to productivity. The following programmes may be followed in 
this regard : 

1. Science education should become an integral part of 
school education and ultimately become a part of all 
courses at the University level. 

2. Work experience should be introduced as an integral part 
of all education. 

3. Every attempt should be made to orient work-experience 
to technology and industrialisation and to productive 
processes including agriculture. 

4. Secondary education should be increasingly and largely 
vocationalized and in higher education a greater em- 
phasis should be placed on agricultural and technical 

(2) Social and National Integration : It is one of the im- 
portant objectives of education. The following steps should be 
taken to strengthen national consciousness and unity. 

1. The common school system of public education should 
be adopted as a national goal and effectively iraplemen- 

Kothari Commission 

ted in a phased programme spread over the period of 
20 years. 

2. Social and National service should be made obligatory 
for all students at all stages. 

(a) Primary Stage : Social service should be on the 
lines of Basic Education. 

(b) Secondary Stage : 30 days’ Social Service at lower 
secondary and 20 days’ for higher secondary level 
in one or more stretches. 

(c) Undergraduate Stage : 60 days’ Social Service in 
one or more stretches. 

(d) Labour and Social Service Camps : For those 
students who do not participate in Social Service 

(e) Social and Community Seiyice : Each institution 
should organise social and community programmes. 

(f) N. C. C. should be continued on its present basis 
till the end of the fourth five-year plan. 

3. The development of an appropriate language-policy can 
materially assist in social and national integration. 

4. Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction in 
school and higher education. 

5. Energetic action is needed to produce books and litera- 
ture, particularly scientific and technical, in regional 
languages in the universities with the help of U. G. C. 
Also all the important scientific and technical books in 
English and other foreign languages should be translated 
into regional languages. 

6. All India institutes should continue to use English as 
the medium of education for the time being. The even- 
tual adoption of Hindi should, however, be considered 
in due course, subject to certain safeguards. 

7. The regional languages should also be made the language 
of administration for the regions concerned. 

8. The teaching and study of English should be continued 
right from the school stage. Other languages, particularly 
Russian, should be encouraged for international 

9. English will be a link lauguage in higher education for 
academic work and intellectual inter-communication. 

Education and National Objectives ^ 

X X X It is Hindi which can and should take this place 
in due course. 

10. Promotion of National Consciousness — A re-evaluation of 
our cultural heritage is needed. For this — 

(a) There should be well-organised teaching of languages, 
literature, philosophy, religions, History of India, 
Indian architecture, sculpture, painting, music, dance 
and drama, camps, summer schools etc,, should be 
organised without any barrier. 

(b) Creation of a faith in the future would involve in an 
attempt as a part of the courses in citizenship. 

11. The educational programme in schools and colleges 
should be designed to inculcate democratic values, 

(3) Education and Moderni-sation : The commission has 
stated that the most distinctive feature of a modern society, in a 
contrast with a traditional one, is in its adoption of a science 
based technology. So following recommendations are presented. 

1. In a modern, society, knowledge increases at a terrific pace 
and social change is very repid. x X X To develop in- 
terest, attitudes and values radical alternation in the 
methods of teaching and training of ^achers is needed. 

2. To nTod^nisc itself, a society has to educate itself. 

(4) Social, Moral and Spiritual Values : The educational 
system should emphasize the development of fundamental social, 
moral and spiritual values. From this point of view — 

1. The Central and State Governments should adopt 
measure to introduce education in moral, social and 
spiritual values in ail institutions under their control (or 
under local authority) on the lines recommended by the 
University Education Commission and the Committee on 
Religious and Moral instructions. 

2. The privately managed institutions should also follow 
the same. 

3. Apart from the education in such values being made an 
integral part of school programme, some periods should 
be provided in the time table for this purpose. They 
should be taken, not by especially recruited teachers but 
by the general teachers, preferably from different commu- 
nities considered suitable for the purpose. 

4. Departments of Comparative Religions and Philosophies 
of the Universities, should especially concern themselves 

iO Kotliari Commission 

with the ways in which these values can be taught wisely 
and effectively and should undertake preparation of spe- 
cial literature for use by students and teachers. 

(5) Education about Religions : It is necessary for a multi- 
religious democratic state to promote a tolerant study of all reli- 
gions so that its citizens can understand each other better and 
live together amicably. A syllabus giving well-chosen information 
about each of the major religions should be included as a part of 
the course in citizenship or as a part of the general education to 
be introduced in school and colleges upto the first degree. It should 
high-light the fundamental similarities in the great religions of 
the world and emphasis they placed on the cultivation of certain 
broadly comparable moral and spiritual values. It would be a 
great advantage to have a common course on this subject in all 
parts of the country and common text-books which should be 
prepared at the national level by competent persons in each 


Education needs to be transformed into powerful instrument 
of social change and closely linked to national development. This 
way we need strong universal and everlasting educational aims to 
achieve our life-goals. Traditional aims and objectives were not 
considered by the commission and it has suggested (1) Education 
and productivity (2) Social and national integration (3) Education 
and modernisation (4) Social, moral and spiritual values (5) and 
Education about religion. 

It is very clear that in a democratic country like ours, edu- 
cation is used as a means of socio-economic change and ah these 
can only be achieved through this most powerful instrument. In 
a world based on science and technology, it is education that 
determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the 
people. We have not decided the main objectives of education 
till now. Hence the problem of student indiscipline is before us. 
According to K. G Saiydain, “This is the problem of student 
indiscipline which is like a hornet’s nest, dangerous to touch- 
XXX I would say that we are all involved, we are all living in 
glass houses and should be chary of throwing stones, real or 
metaphorical at one another,”^ This is clear pro of of the tenden- 

1. Saiyiaain K. G; ‘Student Indiscipline.’ Convocation address — Sardar 
Patel University. Quoted from Journal of Education and Psychology. 
Volume XXIV. No, 4. January, 1967. 

Concluding tiic discussion \vc say tJiat this Commission has 
suggested that the education should be for (h e national d evelop- 
nient. This aim is an inspiration to*malcc~progress in every sphere 
of life. In the history of nations, in the developing areas of the 
'vorld, every attempt should be made to preserve the confinuty of 
national life although progress demands utilisation of modern 
science and technology. It should be the object of education to 
maintain a correct balance between what is valuable in the legacy 
inherited from the past and the needs and requirements of present 

The Commission says— Tf science and a/wn'sa join together in 
creative synthesis of belief and action, mankind will attain to a 
new level of purposefulness, prosperity and spiritual insight.’ The 
Commission supplemented the above statement with words of 
(iawahar Lai Nehru — ‘Can we combine the progress of science and 

12 Kotiiari Coinmissloil 

technology with this progress of the mind and spirit also ? We 
cannot be untrue to science because that represents the basic fact 
of life today. Still less can we be untrue to those essential 
principles for which India has stood in the past throughout the 
ages. Let us then pursue our path to industrial progress with all 
our strength and vigour and at the same time remember that 
material riches without toleration and compassion and wisdom 
may well turn to dust and ashes.’ 

According to Prem Kripal — The Commission has recommended 
that education should be related to the productivity by emphasing 
science education, research vocationalization and by including 
work experience as an integral part of all education at all stages. 
It has also suggested a programme for the development of common 
school system of public education, a compulsory social and 
national service for young people and the development of Hindi 
and the other modern Indian languages to achieve social and 
national integration and to promote national consciousness as well 
as international understanding. It has also emphasied the cultiva- 
tion of social and moral values and inculcation of a sense of social 
responsibility in the rising generation.’^ We can say that recom- 
mendations for national development, is a spark which leads to 
the whole light : This will lead to the fulfilment of the dream we 
see today. 

1. Prem Kripal : A Decade of Education in India. Delhi 1968, p. 17 

3 Educational System : 

Structure and Standard s 

The Co ''.-or-, <:co.It u jtli tlic problem of structure «' ■ 
p.itjcrn of cJue.^tion.i! course;, the diirntion of the total course ■ 
iti ciifTcrcnt rettcr utili>.o.tioti x'>r time and other cducatio- 

^:iC!!i!;r^. The Corrov.r'-ion has discu'ised all the three chanr ■ 
of cduc.-itic'.': ; time, part time and own time. 


I'ollov. j'ne arc the m.ain recommendations on cducatio:. 
s>.‘lcm, its Jtfueturc and standards. 

fl) Structure and Duration— 1. The .standard of cducat 
depends on fuir clcn;cMt< : (i) 7hc .structure of the div'ision ’ 
the cdur.'itional pyramid into dilTercnt levels or stage and tl ■ 
inter-relationship. (lii T/ic duration or total period covered by :! ; 
diJTcrcnt stapes tiii) Tire quality of teachers, ciirriculla, methi , ' 
of tcachinp and cvrsluation, equipment and building, (iv) 1 . v 
utilis.'iiion of available facilities. 

2. The reorganization should be carried out through a pi 
sed programme spread over at least 20 years. 

3. The new educational structure should consists of— (i) One 
to three years of pre school education, (ii) A ten-years 
period of general education which may be subdivided 
into primary stage of 7 to 8 years (a lower primay stage 
of 4 or 5 years and a higher primary stage of 2 to 3 years 
and lower secondary stage of 2 or 3 years of general edu- 
cation or one to three years of vocational education (the 
enrolement in vocational courses being raised to 20% of 
the total), (iii) A higher secondary stage of two years 
of general education or one to three years of vocational 
education (the enrolement in vocational education being 
raised to 50% of the total), (iv) A higher education stage 
having a courses of three years or more for the first degree 
and followed by the courses of varying durations for the 
second or research degrees. 

14 Kothari Commission 

4. The age of admission fo class I should ordinarily be not 
Jess than 6. 

5. The first public external examination should come at the 
end of the first ten years of schooling. 

6. The system of streaming in schools of general education 
from class IX should be abandoned and no attempt at 
specialisation made until beyond class X. 

7. The secondary schools should be of two types — (i) High 
schools providing a ten year course, (ii) Higher Secon- 
dary schools providing a course of II or 12 years. 

8. Attempts to upgrade every secondary school to higher 
secondary stage should be abandoned. Only bigger and 
more efficient school (about one fourth of the total num- 
ber) should be upgraded. Institutions which do not 
deserve the higher secondary status should be down 

9. A new higher secondary course beginning in class IX 
should be instituted. Classes XI & XII (during transi- 
tional period class XI only) should provide specialised 
studies in different subjects. Where, however, existing 
higher secondary school with integrated course in classes 
IX, X and XI are running satisfactorily, the arrangement 
may continue until class XII is added. 

(2) Transfer for the Pre-University Course: (I) The pre- 
university course should be transferred from the university and 
colleges to higher secondary schools by 1 975.-76. (2) The U. G. C. 
should be responsible for affecting the transfer of all pre-univer- 
sity or intermediate work from university and affiliated colleges to 
schools. (3) Higher secondary class or classes should be started 
in selected schools by the State Education Department. (4) Board 
of Secondary Education should be reconstituted to accept tbe 
responsibility for the higher secondary stage also. 

(3) Lengthening the Duration of the Higher Secondary Stage; 

(1) In fourth plan efforts should be continued for the preparation 
of implementing the programme and lengthening the duration of 
the course in a few selected institutions as pilot projects. (2) The 
pogramme of lengthening the duration of the higher secondary 
stage should begin in the fifth plan and be completed by the end 
of the seventh plan. 

(4) Reorganization of the University Stage : (I) The dura- 

fion of the first degree should not be less than three years. The 

Educational System : Structure and Standards 15 

duration of the second degree may he 2 to 3 years. (2) Some 
Universities should start graduate schools with a three years 
Master’s degree course in certain subjects. (3) Three-year spe- 
cial courses for the first degree which begin at the end of the first 
year of the present three-year degree courses should be started in 
selected subjects and in selected institutions. (4) Suitable bridges 
should be built between the existing courses and the new (longer) 
courses, (5) Incentives in the from of scholarships etc. should be 
provided for those who take up longer courses. 

(5) Utilization of Facilities : I. Proper utilization of the 
existing facilities should be made. 2. Instructional days should 
be as '^follows : (i) 36 weeks in schools (ii) 39 weeks in coll- 
eges. Loss of instructional days due to examminations and other 
factors should not be less than 21 days in schools and 27 days in 


3. Vacations should be utilsed fully through participation 
in studies, social service camps, preduction experience, 
literacy drives etc. 



6 . 


Emphasis should be laid on self study. 

Steps should be taken to ensure full utilization of insti- 
tutional facilities such as liberaries, laboratories, work- 
shops, craft-sheds, etc. all the year round. 

Wastaae should be reduced at every stage. 

Standard should be at National and State levels . 
(i) Universities and colleges shonW assist secondao 
schools in improving their efficiency tbrongh a varw 
or measures, (ii) Such school J’;’ 

secondary school and all jj"”; , 

schools within its neighbourhood should be 
the schools in such a complex should gron up from . 

cooperative group working for improvement. ^ 

(6) Part-time Education— Part time ana 
should be developed on large scale at ever} s ag ^ 
of educatian and should be given the same status .-s fa.i tt^. 


(7) Nomenclature : 

(7) iNomenciature ■ e'-o’v.c 

the different stages and sub-stages of eoucanou houlo _b ^ 

, , ^ t nf TnitiT in consultation vitn vj 

by the Government oi inaia in 


The proposed nomenclature of Education L c. loilo 

16 Kothari Commission 

Existing Nomenclature 

Proposed Nomenclature 

1. School Education'. 

I. School Education ; 

A. (i) Pre-primary. 

(ii) Pre-basic. 

(iii) Kindergarden. 

(iv) Montessori, etc. 

A, Pre-Primary 

B. (i) Primary (in Punjab). 

B. faj Lower Primary Clas- 
ses I-IV or I-V 

(ii) Lower-primary (in 

[b] Higher primary Clas- 

some states e.g. 


(iii) Junior Basic 

(iv) Lower Elementary (in 

some states, e.g. 


ses V-VII or VI-VIL 

C. (i) Middle (in some 

C. Secondary Education 

states e.g. Punjab) 

Classes VIII-XIL or 

(ii) Junior High Schools 

[a] Lower Secondary 

(in U. P.) 


(iii) Upper Primary (in 




(iv) Senior Basic. 

[b] Higher Seconda 

(v) Higher Elementary 


(in Madras), 

D. (i) High School. 

(ii) Higher Secondary 


(iii) Intermediate College. 

(iv) Pre-University, 

Classes XI-XII 

2. Higher Education : 

2. Higher Education : 

(i) All degrees which 
lead to a profes- 
sional qualification 
(e.g. M.A. ; M.Sc. ; 

(M. Com,, B. E., 

[i] Professional degrees. 

Educational System ; Structures and Standards 17 

M. B. B. S.; B. T.; 

L.L. B.; B. Sc. Ag. 


(ii) All degrees other 

[ii] General degrees. 

than professional 


(iii) All courses leading 

[iii] Undergraduate. 

to the first degree. 

(iv) All courses beyond 

[iv] Undergraduate. 

the first degree (ex- 

[v] Post-graduate. 

eluding certain first 

degrees given after 

the first degree e.g. 

B. Ed.) 

3. General : 

3. General : 

(i) This will include 

[i] First level of educa- 

pre-school and pri- 


mary education. 

(ii) This will include 

[ii] Second level of edU' 

high school and 


higher secondary 


(iii) This will include 

[iii] Third level of educa- 

under-graduate and 


post-graduate edu- 

cation and research. 


As Prem Kripal asserted — The value of a national pattern 
of education is universally admitted and the nature and scope 
of such a pattern are fairly clear to all those who are involved 
in any way with the task of imparting education at all levels.^ 

We have realised that the present educational system is 
faulty and there is no uniformity in it. In every state we find a 
.system of its type. Sometimes a candidate feels difficulty in 
seeking admission in another state. This commission, has there- 
fore, proposed uniform nomenclature for educational planning 
and reconstruction. Different views from various newspapers 
regarding the new system proposed by Kothari commission are 

1. Prem Kripal. Ibid p. 19. 

1 8 Kothari Commission 

given below — 

1. The proposed system of one to three years of pre-scnooi 
preparation, a 7-8 year primary stage, a lower seeondary stage of 
2-3 years, higher secondary of 2 years, and higher education 
beginning with a three years course, will no doubt be considered 
more scientific than the present system, but unless the proposals 
arc uniformly applied the existing confusion and imbalance as 
between states, can not be removed.”^ 

2. “The commission has suggested a very practical inte- 
grated system of consisting of twelve-year course of Higher 
Secondary stage, followed by a three year course for first degree 
and another two-year course for the final degree. This will be 
topped by special course for higher studies for really deserving 
and capable scholars.”® 

3. According to Dr. D. S. Rcddi — ‘The Commission has 
shown great wisdom in keeping the first degree at present 3 years. 
While I consider that the two year higher secondary stage is the 
most important and constructive recommendation, I am dis- 
appointed that this most crucial stage should have been assigned 
to the Secondary Schools rather than to an independent insti- 
tution like a Junior College, The abolition of the one year Pre- 
university course is the most urgently needed reform but its 
replacement by the 2 year Higher Secondary Course which have 
already 10 classes Even from the psychological point, it is wrong 
to have a mixed age group from 6 to 1 6 in one institution, we 
would all have welcomed a clear one fourth right recommendation 
that this should be entrusted to, independent junior colleges or tc 
existing undergraduate colleges than to a secondary schools.’’® 

4. Dr. P. Parija says — ‘The schooling period was recom- 
mended as 11 or 12 years with a primary stage of 4 or 6 years, 
Who will decide whether the period should be 11 or 12 years; 
Such indecision is prejudicial to uniformity. This is likely tc 
create difficulty.”^ 

Having considired the views of the various scholars and 
eminent educationists, we come to the conclusion that the Com- 
mission has suggested the reorientation in educational planning. 
We, however, need boldness to accept our weakness and have 
for performing the new task whole heartedly. 

h The Patriot— July 2. 1966. 

2. Solidarity. July 7, 1966. 

3. Dr. D. S. JJerf/— Daccan Chronicle. July 17. 1966. 

4. Dr. P. Parija — Amrita Bazar Parika, July, 17, 1966, 

; ^ Teacher Status 

The teacher is considered the ■ poorest fellow of the society 
because of his meager- remuneration and high work. The present 
time witnesses the poor conditions of the teacher who.iis called 
the builder of nation. . ■ - . ' ! . ' 

The Kothari Commission has laid great emphasis on 
Teachers’ Status. A teacher who is illfed can never be • expected 
to produce better results for the national development. 


The Kothari Commission hais recommended the following 
points to improve the status of the Teachers. 

(1) Remuneration : The Commission has recommended the 
following grades to improve the status of the teachers. These 
should be the sarne for all the teachers working in Government, 
Local bodies and privately managed institutions. . , 

S.N. Teachers ProposediScale 

1. (a) Teachers who have completed the ■ 

secondary course and have received 150-250 

two years’ professional Training. 

, (b) Selection grade (for about 15% of the cadre) 250-300 

Note : ■ The -minimum salary of a primary teacher who has completed 
the secondary course should be immediately raised to Rs. 100/- In a period 
of 5 years it should be raised to Rs. 125/- Similarly the minimum pay of a 
teacher, who has received two years’ of training should be raised immediately 
to Rs. 125/- ; and it should be raised to Rs. 150/- in a period of five years. 
Untrained persons with requisite academic qualifications should work on the 
• ^ starting salary until they are trained and become eligible for the scale. 

2. (a) Graduates who have received one 220-400 

year’s professional training (Ser- 
' vice period 20 years.) 

(b) Selection grade (for about 15% 
of the cadre.) 


20 Kothari Commission 

(c) Untrained graduate should re- 
mainon their starting salary of 
Rs. 200/- p.m. until they are 
trained and become eligible for 
the scale. 

3. Teacher^s working in Secondary 
Schools and having post-graduate 
qualifications. (On being trained 
they should get one additional 

4. -Heads of the Secondary-Schools. 
Depending upon size and jquality 
of the school -and also on 4heir 
qualifications, the headmasters 
should have one or other of the 
scale of pay for ‘ teabhers in affili- 
•ated -colleges recommended 

5. Teachers of Affiliated Colleges 

(i) Lecture— 

(a) Junior Scale 

(b) Senior Scale 

(c) Senior' Lecture/Reader 

(il) Principal— 

(a) I Grade 

(b) II Grade 

(c) III Grade 

6. Teachers in University .Department— 

(i) Lecturer 

(ii) Reader 

(iii) Professor 












One third of the professors , should ;be 
in the Senior scale of 

Note : 1. All srales of pay shourd be periodically revieweo anu revised 

at least once in five years. house 

2 . c<.mp«s,.ory cos. of - '‘•'SdMo. 

3. The scales are to be given to all teachers 

private service, 

Teacher '.'Status 

( 1 ) Implementation of Scales-'at'tha Uniyersify'iStage ; (I] 
Assistance from the- centre should' b'e -provided 'to meet additional 
expenditure on a sharing basis of 80% from Centre an(i<20% from 
State funds. In the case of private colleges, central assistance md'j 
even be provided on a J00% basisi (2) The introduction of these 
scale of pay should be linked with improvement in the qualifica' 
tions of teachers and improvement in the selection procedures foi 
their appointment. (3) The. qualifications, of teachers in affiliated 
college should be the same as those, fordeachers in the universities 
The method of recruitment for them should also be similar. 

(3) Implementation of Scale for School, Teachers. : (1) Thre( 
main scales of pay should, be^ recognized for, school teacher 
(i) for teachers who have completed the, secondary, school stagi 
and are trained :.(ii) for. trained. graduates : and.(iii) for. teacher 
with post-graduate qualifications. 

(2) There, should, be no - teacher at the.primary stage.whi 
has not completed the secondary, school course and ha 
not had two.years of professional training. 

(3) Headmasters- of higher primary, and lower- primar 
schools with , enrolments, of more than 200, should :b 
trained graduates. Their salaries - should be the sam 
as those of traiiie-d, graduate teachers, imsecondar 

(4) Seales of pay of secondary school teachers should fc 
relateddo scales- of pay/ for teachersdn affiliated college 
andiuniversities.-on the onefiand and -to those, of primar 
teachers on the. other. 

(5) i Scales of pay fbr headmasters^ of lower and highe 

secondary schools should have a definite relationshi 
with- those, of teachers'^ in- affiliated- colleges or eve 

(6) ’ Teachers with first and second classtB A./B. Sc. or MA 

M.' SC. or, with’ M. Ed. degree should be given advanc 
increments in the scale. 

(7) Professional training should- be obligatory for a 
secondary school teachers. 

(4) Promotional Prospects : (l) S'c/ioo/ Sfage — Qualified an 
trained teachers in primary schools should be considered for pr( 
motion as headmster.or inspecfor of schools. 

(2) Trained graduate teachers in secondary schools who have 

22 * Kothari Commissioil 

done outstanding work-shouid'be eligible- for promotio. 
to post carrying salaries of teachers with post-graduat 

(3) The U.G.C. should give ad-hoc grants to oiitstandinj 
teachers to do research into problems to encourage then 
and incidently to qualify themselves for work at th( 

(4) Advance increments of teachers doing outstanding worl 
should be made possible. 

(5) University Stage. Ad-hoc temporary posts in a higher 
grade should be created for a Lecturer or Reader who 
has done outstanding work and who cannot be given 
promotion for the non-availability of a suitable post. 

(6) In post-graduate departments, the post of the professor 
should be on the basis of requirements. 

(7) Special scales of Rs. 1600-1800 should be given to out- 
standing persons. 

(5) Relation Salaries to Cost of Living ; All teacher’s salaries 
should be reviewed every five year and the dearness allowance 
paid to teachers should be the same as that paid to government 
servants with the same salary, 

(6) Welfare Services : A genera! programme of welfare 
services for ail school teachers should be organised in each state 
and Union Territory, the funds being contributed by teachers 
(at liX of tfie salaries) and an equal amount being given by the 
State. The fund should be administered by Joint Committees of 
representatives of teachers and the Government. 

(7) Retirement Benefits : (1) The system of retirement 
benefits to teachers should also be reorganised on the 
principles of uniformity and parity. That is to say the 
retirement benefits'^gb^n to employees of the Govern- 

fment of India should be extended automatically to 

^ teachess in the service of State Government in the first 
instance and than to teachers working under local bodies 
and private managements. 

(2) Triple benefit scheme should be more widely adopted 
for all the teachers. 

(3) The normal retirement age for teaches in schools, colleges 
and universities should be made 60 years with provision 
for extension upto 65 years. 

Teacher Statui 23 

(4) A higher rate of interest should be given to teachers on 
their provident fund. 

(8) Conditions of Work and Service : 

(1) Teachers should work at the highest level of efficiency. 

(2) - Adequate facilities for professional advancement should 

be provided to all teachers. 

(3) A scheme should also be drawn up under which every 
teacher will get a concessional railway pass to any part 
of India once in five years on payment of a reasonable 
contribution related to his salary. 

(4) New conduct and discipline rules suitable for teaching 
profession should be framed for teachers in Government 

(5) The terms and conditions of service of teachers in private 
schools should be the same as for Government school, 

(6) Private tutions should be discouraged and controlled. 
Special coaching for children who need it should be 
provided on an institutional basis. 

(7) Teachers should be free to exercise all civic rights and 
should be eligible for public offices at the local, district, 
state or national level. No legal restriction should be 
placed on their participation in election but when they 
do so, they should be expected to proceed on leave. 

(9) Women Teachers ; (I) The employment of women 
teachers should be encouraged at all stages and in all 
sectors of education. Opportunities for part-time employ- 
ment should be provided for them on a large scale. 

(2) Adequate provision should be made for their residential 
accommodation particularly in rural areas. 

(3) The Condensed and Correspondence Courses should be 
operated for women education. 

(4) Wherever necessary, special allowances should be given 
to women teachers working in rural areas. 

(10) Teachers’ Organisation : (1) Professional organisa- 
tions of teachers which carry out work for the improvement of the 
profession and of education should be recognized by the Central 
and State Government and consulted on matters relating to school 
education, general and professional education of teachers and their 
salaries and conditions of work. (2) Joint teachers’ Councils 
should be constituted in each State and Union Territory to discuss 

24 Kotiiari Commission 

all matters relating to teacher’s salaries, conditions of work and 
welfare service. These should consist of representatives of Teachers’ 
Organisations and officers of the State Education Department. 
Convention should be developed to the effect that the unanimous 
recommendations of the council would be accepted by the Govern- 
ment. In certain matters, there should be provision for arbitration 
when negotiations fail. 

(11) National Awards ; (1) Number of national awards should 
be increased. (2) The selection committees should be strengthened. 
(3) Travelling allowance given to the awardees should be similar 
to that sanctioned for class I officers of the Government. 


The Education Commission has considered sympathetically 
the improvement in the status of teachers. It recommends the 
grades which are nearly equal to other sectors of the society. 
Minimum pay for a trained primary school teacher is Rs. 150/— 
exclusive of dearness and other allowances. The highest pay 
which the Commission suggested for a Professor is I600-18C0. 

The Commission also recommends that the salaries of teachers 
working under various managements such as the Government, 
local bodies and private management should be uniform. 

The Centre should provide 80% of the additional expenditure 
at the university stage to introduce these scales and the balance of 
20% should be borne by the states. In the case of private colleges, 
Central assistance should be 100%. The Commission holds the 
opinion that the introduction of these scales of pay should be 
linked up with improving the qualifications of teachers and their 
selection procedures. No teacher at primary level should be 
untrained. He should have two teachers’ Training. 

On the basis of our experience, we know that the Government 
always slashes the funds provided for education in the plans prob- 
ably because of a prejudice against spending more money on 
education. Education, has thus always suffered at the hands of 
our planners and ministers. 

The Kothari Commission placed its report in the hands of the 
Government in the month of June 1966, recommending the imme- 
diate application of uniform national pay scales for teachers which 
were accepted in principle. It is a tragedy that the State Govern- 
ments have not been able to realize the simple fact that teachers 
with acute financial difficulties will not be able to carry on much 

Teacher Status 

longer and there is a great dcspcrlty of grades and other cnin.u- 

raents given to the Govt, employees and to the teachers serving 'o 
private sector. Dissatisfaction among tcaclicrs is motitUtng. Tne 
disparity between the affiliated college teachers and the univer- 
sity teachers is unwarranted, unjustified and against the spirit of 
socialism and democracy. 

Ministers and public leaders talk of improvcrncnl in the 
quality of education and more social contact of teachers as a 
solution to the recent, countrywide student unrest and disturb.inccs. 
They are never tired of delivering sermons to the teachers 
they should not resort to coercive and agitational activities to 
force their legitimate claims but should always preserve the so- 
called ethical values. May I be allowed to ask, is there any 
method within the audible range of our present Government ? 
The rising cost of living hits the teacher as hard as any State 
employee. The Government, however, listens only to those who 
can by their agitations, by courting arrests and similar other 
pressure tactics paralyse its machinery. Funds for them arc always 
arranged somehow or the other. 

The question of salary scales for teachers is of primary impor- 
tance. All talk of financial stringency is utter nonsense. Crorcs of 
rupees are being wasted on unnecessary visits of Ministers for their 
own benefit. Money seemed to be forthcoming for various other 
minor schemes. Prem Kripal said, on the qualitative side, it was 
recommended a reorganiraed almost uniform pattern of school and 
college classes, an upgrading of the quality of teachers through 
better remuneration, provision of satisfactory conditions of work 
and service and improved facilities for general and professional 
education aud upgrading of ten percent of educational institutions 
at all stages to higher standards of quality,’^ 

Improvement is needed from both the sides. A survey is made 
to study the efficiency of teachers. The project came to the conclu- 
sions that— “Most teachers in secondary schools in India have 
neither the proper background nor basis qualifications in the sub- 
ject they teach.” This is revealed by a country-wide survey of 
secondary teachers and their basic qualifications conducted by the 

National Council of Education Research and Traininu under the 

Education Ministry. 

It is an open secret th at our resources are limited and our 

1. Ibid. p. 17 ~ ~ 

26 Kotbari Commission 

expenditures are more. The balance should be maintained in our 
income and expenditure. But it does not mean that tie poor 
teachers should suffer all the time. Till our resources improve, all 
other types of expenses should be abolished. The recommenda- 
tions of the Commission relating to the salaries, Mr. M.C. Chagla 
described them as the Teachers’ Magna Carta. The Commission 
has suggested reasonable scales of emoluments for teachers at all 
levels. A sound educational system cannot be built with 
perpetually unsatisfied teachers. They must get their minimum 
economic remuneration and status. Good teaching should also 
be supplemented by a streamlined administrative set up for 

Dr. Kothari and others clearly say that the responsibility of 
implementing the Report is primarily that of the Government- 
Central and States. If they will not accept it, no one else will or 

1. National Solidarity— 7th July, 1966. 

The Education Commission has made important recommen- 
dations on Teacher Education. The Commission is of the opinion 
that the standard of education depends on the quality of teachers. 
Now-a-days one who does not get service anywhere comes in 
teaching profession. It is immaterial whether he is trained or 
not. Due to a lack of qualified persons, that standard of edu- 
cation is deteriorating everyday. 

A programme to train the teachers for Nursery, Primary 
and Secondary level is needed. Several Commissions in the past 
have suggested piece meal reform of teacher-education but the 
present Commission has suggested a complete overhauling. 


(1) Removing the Isolation of Teacher Training ; The profes- 
sional preparation of teachers, being crucial for the qualitative 
improvement of education in general should be treated as a key 
area in educational planning and adequate financial and adminis- 
trative provisions be made for it, at the State and Central level. 

1. In order to make the professional preparation of effec- 
tive, teachers teacher-education must be brought into 
the main stream of the academic life of the Universities 
on the one hand, and of school life and educational 
development on the other. 

2. To remove the existing isolation of teacher education 
from University life — (i) education as distinguished 
from pedagogy should be recognised as an independent 
academic discipline and introduced as an elective subject 
in the B. A., B. Sc., M. A., M. Sc. degree courses, fii) 
School of Education should be established in selected 
universities to develop programmes in teacher-education 
and studies and research in education in collaboration 
with other Univerity disciplines. 

Kotjiari CommissiOil 

3. To remove the existing isolation of iTeacher-education 
from schools, (i) extension work should be regarded as 
an essential function of a teachers training institution. 
Extension Service Department should be established in 
each institution’s pre-primary, primary and secondary 
as an integrated part of it. (iij effective alumni associa- 
tion should be established to bring old students and 
faculty together to discuss and plan programmes and 
curricula, (iii) practice-teaching for teachers under 
training should be organised in active collaboration with 
selected schools which should receive recognition from 
the Education Department as co-operating schools and 
get special grants for equipment and supervision, (iv) 
periodic exchange of the staff of the co-operating schools 
and of the teacher’s training institutions should be 

4. An intensive effort should be made to remove the exis- 
tence separation among the institutions preparing 
teachers for different stages of education or for special 
fields such as craft or art or physical education by — 
(i) implementing a phased programme of upgarding all 
training institutions to be collegiate standard with ulti- 
mate objective of bringing all teacher education under 
the University, (ii) establishing comprehensive colleges 
of education in each State on a planned basis, (iii) esta- 
blishing a State Board of Teacher Education in each 
State to be responsible for all functions related to teacher 
education at all levels and in all - fields. 

(2) Improving Professional Education — This can be done 
hrough ; (1) Organisation of well-planned subject orientation 

»r Content Courses in collaboration with university departments 
sading to insight into basic concepts, objectives and implications 
•f subjects to be taughts, (2) Introducing integrated courses of 
[eneral and professional education in universties. (3) Vitalizing 
•rofessional studies and basing them on Indian conditions through 
he development of educational research. (4) Using improved 
nethods of teaching which have greater scope for self-study and 
iscussion and improved methods of evaluation which include 
ontinuous internal assessment of practical and sessional work 
s well as practice teaching. (5) Improving practice teaching and 
aaking it a comprehensive programme of internship. (6) Develop- 

Teacher Education 29 

ing special courses and, programmes. .,(7) Revising the curricula 
and programmes at all Jevels of teacher -education in the light of 
the fundamental objectives of preparing teachers for their varied 
responsibilities in an evolving system of education. (8) The 
duration of the professional courses should be two years for 
primary teachers who have completed the secondary course. It 
should be one year for the graduate students, but the number of 
working days in a year should be increased to 230. (9) The staff 
of a secondary training college should have a double Master’s 
degree in an academic subject and in Education. (10) Qualified 
specialists in subjects like Psychology, Sociology, Science or 
Mathematics may be appointed on the staff even if they have 
not had professional training. (11) Summer institutes should be 
organised for the inservice training of staff. (12) The staff, in 
institutions for training primary teachers should hold a Master’s 
degree either in education or in an academic subject as well as 
B. Ed. and should have undergone special induction courses in 
teacher education at the primary levels. (13) Special courses 
should be organised for graduate entering primary teaching. 

(14) All tuition fees in training institutions should be abolished 
and liberal provision made for stipends and loans. Every training 
institution should have an experimental school attached to it. 

(15) Adequate hostel facilities for trainees and residential accomo- 
dation for staff should be provided. 

(3) Expansion of Training Facilities : The objective should 
be to ensure that every teacher in a primary or secondary school 
is either already trained at the time of his appoinment or receives 
such training within three years of his appoinment. From this 
point of view-(l) Each state should prepare a plan for the 
expansion of training facilities in its area so that the output of 
trained teachers meets the demand for teachers as well as the 
needs for in service education. (2) Part-time facilities and corres- 
pondence courses should be provided on a large scale and care 
should be taken to see that the standards in full time institutions 
are not diluted. (3) The backlog of untrained teachers should 
be cleared at an early through measure of the types recommended 
in the report. (4) The size of the institution should be located 
on a planned basis. 

(4) In-service Education of School Teachers— (1) A large 
scale co ordinate programme of in-service education for teacher? 

30 Kothari Commission 

should be organised by universities, training institutions and 
teachers’ Organisations for teachers at all levels. The targets 
should be (bat every teacher will receive at least two or three 
months inscrvice education in every five years of his service. (2) 
The programme of summer Institutes for the inservice training 
of secondary school teachers should be extended, with systematic 
follow up and active collaboration among the agencies concerned. 

(5) Professional Preparation of Teachers in Higher Education— 
0) Some orientation to professional education is necessary for 
junior lectures in higher education and suitable arrangements 
should be made for the purpose. (2) Newly appointed lectures 
should be given some time to acclimatize themselves to the insti- 
tution and should be encouraged to attend lectures of good 
teachers. (3) Regular orientation courses for new staff should 
be organised in every university and where possible, in every 
college. (4) In the bigger universities or groups of universitie 
these courses may be placed on a permanent basis by establishinj 
a staff college. 

(6) Standard in Teacher Education — (1) At the national 
level, the U.G.C. should take the responsibility for the main- 
tenance of standards in teacher Education and should be res- 
ponsible for the raising of standards at the state level. (2) A 
substantial allocation of funds .should be made available to the 
U.G.C. in the fourth plan for improvement in teacher-education 
in the universities. (3) The UGC should set up a standing 
committee for teacher education in collaboration with NCERT. 

It should consist of competent persons from the, profession and 
should be responsible for the maintenance of standards in edu- 
cation. (4) The Government of India should make provision of 
funds in the centrally sponsored sector to assist State Govern- 
ments to develop teacher education which is now outside the 


“Most teachers in secondary schools in India have neither 
the proper back-ground nor basic qualification in the subjects 
they teach. This is revealed by a counrry-wide survey of 
secondary teachers conducted by the National Council of Edu- 
cational research and Training under the Education Ministry. 

The survey, covering 30,000 teachers throughout the country has 

Teacher Education 31 

pointed to the staggening fact that proper redical measures are 
urgently needed to raise the standard of education in high 
schools.”^ This clearly shows the need of improvement in the 
Teacher Education. .The Commission has suggested so many 
things to develop Teacher Education. 

India is in a tight position following devaluation. We shall 
be glad if we are able to carry on with the funds alloted for edu- 
cation in the plans. 

Recommendations of the Commission which envisaged im- 
provements without much expenditure should be implemented 
forthwith. Teachers welcomed the recommendations with reser- 
vations. They are happy that they have been promised better 
grades, but they are not sure if the Government will spend more 
on education. 

“The gleanings of Kothari Commission have been published. 
They constitute the main points of the report with a few direct 
implications of them as far as we can interpret. Mr. Chagla 
has characterised this report as the Manga Carta for the teachers 
XXX But if we look closely we find that the report has indulged 
into certain patch-work reforms and also has indulged into 
certain ambitious wishes which may turn-out to be variable 

The fact is that the Commission has ignored the basic fact; 
the resources. From where the money will come ? Dr. S. B. 
Adaval says... “The Commission has not been able to hide its 
feelings of nervousness about the stupciuious task entrusted to it, 
and seems over conscious of limitnlions, particularly financial, 
under which it has tried to plan and present its recommendations. 
This naturally, comes in the way of Ihe e.xiiberant forward looking 
approach of a normally confidant group of educational thinkers 
and planners. The vigour, the dynamism and the powerful 
optimism of a nation on march is definitely not reflected in the 

It is true that Commission thought over the problem of 
Teacher Education sincerely. Dr. Adaval says— “It is gratifying 
to note that Commission has given some recognition to the impor-' 

1. Hindustan Times— dated April 11, 1966. 

2. Education, Vol, XVI August 1966, Page 2, 

3. Adavavl S. B, NIE .Tournal, ‘The Education Commission and Teacher 
Education,’ Vol, I No, 2 Page 60, 

32 Kothari Commission 

tance of teacher education in the wider context of qualitative im* 
provement of education in' the country. X x X The whole chapter 
is a bundle of recommendations, some important — some causal 
and some fulfil. 

According to the Commission, teachers’ education should be 
improved. But how ? Dr. Adaval throws some light on it, “Re- 
commendations on teacher education have been made in order to 
(i) improve and increase training facilities (ii) improve quality of 
training institutions and of teachers education programmes, (iii) 
set up organizational agencies to maintain a standard in teacher 
education.”® • 

Pointing the problem of non-coordination of Teachers’ 
Education, he writes — “Teachers’ education has for several years 
viewed with concern the fact that the training of teachers of 
Elementary, Secondary and Nursery schools is carried on in 
separate, highly isolated institutions and there are no points of 
contact and mutual give-and-take even between two institutions 
conducting similar programmes and existing side by side.”* 

“The Commission has proposed it to be done in two ways 
one by starting new institutions on a planned basis and secondly 
to raise the size of existing institutions by increasing their intake.’^ 

Ij is an irony that Indians have to be told by the Commission 
that their education should be Indianized.® 

In most of the cases Commission tried to please every body 
and every sector of the society. With the result that nothing is 
escaped from the eyes of the Commission. Most of the recom- 
mendations are the same as recommended by previous Commis- 
sions. Adaval expresses, “In many matters regarding teacher 
education, the Commission has followed the beaten track without 
being sufficiently bold and imaginative. It worked like an office 
drawing up a long list of recommendations. There are many 
loop-holes in teacher education and the Commission has set about 
plugging each one of them. And in this effort it has lost a great 
opportunity to lead and inspire.”® 

4. Ibid! — — 

5. Ibid. 

6. Ibid-Page 63. 

7. Ibid-Page 61, 

8. Ibid-Page 63, 

9 . Ibid-Page 66, 

Teacher Education 33 

The Commission’s report has met different reactions. There 
are persons who welcome the report like anything because it suits 
their interests, but there are some others, who have realistic 
approach and ponder-over aspect of the problem. This is the 
main characteristic of this report. One can take it in whatsoever 
way he likes, but many programmes suggested by the Commission 
have much weight. Therefore, “In the field of education, all 
societies have to reckon with the complex interactions of the 
limitations of resources, requirements of the society, aspirations 
of individuals and cultivation of excellence. Economics along 
with other social sciences can help in formulating not only an 
efficient policy from a narrow technical point of view but also in 
evolving a more human and enlightened system.^® In my opinion, 
to remove all types of problems regarding the teacher education; 
to every teacher should be given a chance for higher study ; it 
may be academic of professional. No demarcation of any type 
be done in giving the facilities for the same”. 

Regarding the Teacher’s status and Education J. P. Naik has 
rightly said — ‘The commission has recornmended substantial 
improvements in the remuneration of teachers, particularly at the 
school stage. The gap in the remuneration of teacher at different 
stages of education is proposed to be abridged. There-would be 
parity and uniformity in re.spect of scales of pay, allowances and 
retirement benefits between teachers working in all types of edu- 
cational institutions, government, local authority or private. There 
would be adequate opportunities for promotion and conditions of 
work and service would be improved. If the recommendations 
made by the Commission in this regard are implemented, there 
would be an adequate feed back of the best persons coming out 
from the educational system into teaching profession and this 
would raise the standard exponentially.”^ 

10. Editorial— ‘Economic Issue in Education Policy’ in Educational 
and Psychological Review’. Page 9. Vol. VII. No. 1. Jan. 1967. 

11. /. P. Naik. Education in Fourth Plan. Page 119. 


Enrolment and 

We are facing to-day a tremendous problem — the unemploy- 
ment. This unemployment is of two types— (i) a person who 
has no work to do, (ii) a person who is misfit in a particular 
job. The present Commission has discussed in this chapter these 
aspects of the problem. We are of the opinion that the present 
outlook of planning our needs according to our means must 
prove fruitful to us. Our ultimate aim is national development. In 
building the castle of nation everyone has to fix a brick. But 
how ? Unless we make every person perfect in all respects 
through the media of education, it will not be possible. 


(1) A National Enrolment Policy ; The following broad 
objective should be followed to set up the national policy of 

enrolment during next 20 years, 

1 . Free and compulsory education for 7 years should be 
provided as effective general education. 

2. (i) To provide higher secondary and university edu- 
cation to those who are willing and qualified to receive 
such education, consistent with the demand for trained 
manpower and need to maintain essential standards, 
(ii) To provide adequate financial assistance to econo- 
mically handicapped persons. 

3. To emphasize the development of professional, technical 
and vocational education and to prepare skill personnel 
needed for the development of agriculture and industry. 

4. To identify talent and to help it grow in its full poten- 

5. To liquidate mass illiteracy and to provide an adequate 
programme of adult and continuing education. 

6. To strive continuously to equalize educational oppor- 
tunities, beginning with the elimination of at least some 
of the more glaring inequalities, 

Enrolment and Man-Power 35 

(2) Raising the Educational Level of the Average Citizen •' 
Priority should be given to programmes of raising educational 

1. By providing 5 years of effective primary education by 
1975-76 and seven years of such education by 1985-86 
to all. 

2. By making part-time education compulsory for one year 
for all children in the age group of 11-14, who have not 
complete the lower primary stage and are not attending 

3. By developing programmes to liquidate adult illiteracy. 

(3) Enrolment Policies in Secondary and Higher Education : 
(1) Criteria of the enrolment in post-primary education should 
be as mentioned, (i) Public demand for secondary and higher 
education, (ii) Full development of the pool of natural ability, 
(iii) Capacity of society to provide education facilities as required 
levels of quality, (iv) Manpower requirements. 

2. Seeing the increasing demands of secondary and higher 
education, it is necessary to adopt a policy of selective 
admissions to higher secondary and university education 
in order to bridge the gap between the public demand 
and available facilities. 

3. Proper care of the education of gifted students (5 to 15 
percent of all the students) should be made giving them 
financial help in the form of scholarships. 

4. Estimated requirements of man power needs or available 
job opportunities from a good basis for planning the 
expansion of educational facilities. This broad recom- 
mendation has to be understood in the light of three 
reservations. These considerations should be kept in 
mind, (i) a continuous efforts should be made to im- 
prove the collection of necessary data and the techni- 
ques of man-power needs should be continuously revised 
and kept upto date, (ii) the quality of man power needs 
should be equally emphasized, (iii) the estimates of 
manpower needs should not be regarded as the only 
criterion— it should be suitably combined with other 
criteria in taking final decisions about expansion of 
educational facilities. 

36 Kothari Commission 

(4) Educational Implications of Estimates : The following 
are the main policy implications of these estimate— 

1. To restrict the unplanned an uncontrolled expansion of 
general secondary and higher education of massive edu- 
cated unemployment is to be avoided. 

2. To make special and intensive efforts to vocationalize 
secondary education and to develop professional educa- 
tion at the university stage. 

3. To devise suitable machinery, both at the national and 
state levels. 

(5) Machinery for Manpower Planning (1) At the national 
level planning Commission which is responsible for 
preparing estimates of manpower requirements in ail 
sectors of national developments should set up a stand- 
ing committee for manpower. 

2. At the state level, standing committee for manpower 
should be established on the lines of National Standing 
Committee for Manpower. 

3. At the national level institutions for training personnels 
should be set up for the immediate supply of manpower. 

4. The same work should be done by State Governments in 
their territories. 

5. Provisions for vocational education-both of school and 
college, standard will have to be expanded in all areas on 
a priority basis in keeping with manpower needs. 

6. For enrolment in general education, the following may 
be suggested, (i) In all areas where the level of expan- 
sion reached is nearly equal to the national average 
expected in 1986, a restrictive policy should be adopted 
unless there are special reasons for the contrary, (ii) 
Governments (Central and State) should suggest their 
targets, (iii) The planning of higher education should be 
done on a state basis. Each university should prepare 
five year plans, (iv) District Level Authority should 
plan all school education at district level. 

(6) Education and Employment : Government should make 
an offer of employment to every graduate. The system of one- 
year internship now prescribed for medical graduate should be 
^^ctended to other categories of graduates- 

Enrolment and Man-Power 37 

(7) A Wider Perspective : The basic problem of human 
resource development can be solved only against a wider per- 
spective. From this point of view, it is necessary to formulate and 
implement integrated plans which will have three objectives. 

(1) To reduce the birth rate by about half. (2) To bring 
about an expansion of employment. (3) To provide such education 
as will qualify young people for specific jobs. 

Such integrated plans are needed at the national, state and 
district levels. 


The Commission has given too much weight to check and 
remove the unemployment from the country. Particularly it 
has pointed out the role of the education existing to-day. The 
education of the day is filthy and it serves the purposes other than 
educational. It creates the 3R’S. i.e.; person who knows how to 
read, write and calculate but it does not train him how to lead 
life properly. Though we have high ideal yet we can not achieve 

If India is to achieve its target of economic growth, she must 
have an adequate supply of educated specialists for each category 
of job to be performed — we believe that the estimates of future 
manpower needs form a useful basis for regulating patterns above 
the primary level. 

Discussing the mobilisation of the population for balancing 
the manpower, the International Bureau of Education reported 
“the shortage of teachers, particularly teachers with proper 
training and qualifications give rise to more anxiety than ever and 
is tending to become worse. 

A dearth of competent and trained man-power is now felt in 
nearly every branch of national life ; and is probably one of the 
biggest bottlenecks to progress. Poor as we are financially the 
poverty of trained intellect is still greater. We might do well to 
remember White-Head’s warning ; ‘In the modern world the rule 
is absolute — any race which does not value trained intelligence is 

The Commission is of the opinion that the new structure may 
create any confusion at present but after implementing it, all will 

1. UNESCO Courtier-September 1966. (Quoted from NIE Journal 
November, 1966. Page 56) 

2. Quoted from J.C. Agarwal’s book ‘Major Recommendations of the 

Education Commission.’ Page 11. 

38 Kothari Commission 

be clear. ‘Leaving aside the generally painful jargon in which 
teachers are listed among ‘essential inputs’ the recommendations 
about the ‘new educational structure’ will have to be critically 
considered. The suggestion that no specialisation should begin 
before the first ten years of schooling seems to be based on sound 
reasoning, but to transfer the specialised preuniversity course to 
schools would be undesirable in existing and predictable condi- 
tions. The Commission’s plan for the change are complicated and 
confusing, but the net effect may be a return to the old system of 
general school education for ten years, followed by two years of 
partial specialisation in preparation for the first degree course.’^ 
The need of a general policy for utilising the manpower 
maintaining proper enrolment is being felt in every sector of the 
country. How many persons we need in a particular trade ? 
And how many persons in other fields of life ? Thus we conclude 
— ‘In every country, those responsible for education, those 
concerned v/ith administration and teaching, inspectors, heads of 
institutions — must set about rethinking the subject taught in an 
international spirt. This is particularly neceessary in the case of 
History, Geography, Language, History ofEducation and Teaching 
Methods. This specialization will lead us to our goal. i. e. the 
proper utilization of our manpower and this is based on our 
present enrolment policy for the new generation which is ascending 
to the gate-way of knowledge. 

The problem movement and manpower is directly related with 
the employment. AH the significant problems have been solved 
through educational planning. Therefore Commission has rightly 
stated — ‘to I'educe the birth rate to about half in a planned 
programme of 10-15 years, to bring about avery rapid economic 
development in such a manner that these would be job for every 
youngman or woman who enters the labour force and to provide 
such education to the young boys and girls as will qualify them, 
by having a spectific job to do to participate effectively in the 
national development programme. 

1. Statesman, July 3, 1966. 


Towards Equalization of 
Educational Opportunities 

In the history of the Commissions, it is for the first time that 
this Commission has thought over the equalization of Educational 
Opportunities without any consideration of race, caste and 
community. The Commission has proposed (i) Free Education 
(ii) Scholarships of various types to those who deserve (iii) Edu- 
cation for women, handicapped and backward classes, and (iv) 
Education for tribal persons. It seems that the Commission has 
paid considerable attention to the equalization of educational 
opportunities. If the recommendations will be implemented, we 
hope that in the next twenty years, ail persons will be educated. 


(1) Fees in Education : The country should work towards a 
stage when all education would be tuition free. From this point 
of view: (I) Tuition fees at the primary stage should be abolished 
in all Government, local authority and aided private schools 
before the end of the 4th Plan. (2) Lower secondary education 
should be tuition free in all the schools before the end of the fifth 
Plan. (3) For the next ten years, the main efforts with regard 
to fees in higher secondary and universities education should be 
to extend the provision of tuition free education to all needy and 
deserving students. As the first step, the proportion of free 
studentships should be increased to 30% of the enrolment. 

(2) Other Private Costs : (1) Free text books and writing 
materials should be provided at the primary stages. Before the 
start of the long vacations, a set of books should be given to 
each student for further study. (2) A programme of book-bank 
should be developed in secondary schools and institutions of 
higher education. State Government and UGC should help this 
programme. (3) The libraries of secondary schools and institution 
of higher education should contain an adequate number of sets 
of text-books so that the students can have any access to them. 
(4) Grants for the purchase of books should be made to talented 

40 Kholhari Commission 

(3) Scholarship : (]) The following programme of scholar- 
ships is proposed al the different stages of education. 

(i) Primary Stage Steps should be taken to ensure that 
at the end of the lower primary stage no promising child 
is prevented from continuing his studies further and to 
this end, a scholarship of an adequate amount will have 
to be provided to every child that may need it. 

(ii) Secondary Stage — Steps should be taken to ensure that 
the top 15% of the children in the age group do get 
scholarship from higher primary to the secondary 

(iii) University Stage— Scholarships should be available to at 
least 15% of the enrolment at the undergraduate stage by 
1976 and to 25% of such enrolment by 1986. Scholarships 
should be available at least 25% of the enrolment at the 
post graduate stage by 1970 and 50% of such enrolment 
by 1986. 

2. There should be two kinds of scholarships, (i) for those 
who have to stay in hostels ; such scholarships should cover all the 
direct and indirect costs of education, (ii) for those who can stay 
at home and attend the school or college. These should mainly 
cover direct and indirect costs. 

3. The amount of scholarships should be regulated in such 
a manner as to cover all costs. 

(i) National Scholarships : (1) The scheme of national 

scholarships should be expanded, This should be 10% by 1985-86. 
(2) With a view to introducing a greater egalitarian element in 
the award of these scholarships, it is suggested that the 50% of 
these scholarships should be awarded, as at present on the state 
basis. The remaining 50% should be awarded on the school 
cluster basis. 

(ii) University Scholarships : (1) To supplement the above, 
a scheme of University scholarships should be instituted and 
implemented through the UGC. The target to be reached is 1C% 
at under-graduate and 20% at the postgraduate level by 1976. 

(2) A standing committee on postgraduate and Research 
Scholarships should be set up at the national level in the Ministry 
of Education. 

(iil) Scholarships for Vocational Education— (1) With regard 

Towards Edualization of Educational Opportunities 41 

to scholarships in vocational education, the admission examina- 
tions to IITs should be held in English and also' in regional 
language and the best students from each linguistic group should 
be selected, if necessary, on the basis of quota related to popula- 
tion. (2) At the school stage 30% and college stage 50% scholar- 
ships should be given. 

(iv) Scholarships for Study Abroad: There should be a national 
programme for the award of scholarships to the best talented 
students for study abroad. About 50% scholarships should be 
awarded every year. 

(v) Loan Scholarships — It is necessary to institute a pro- 
gramme of loan scholarships to supplement the outright grant 
scholarships. (2) If a person who holds a loan scholarships joins 
the teaching profession, one tenth of the loan should be written 
off for each year service. This will encourage good students to 
join teaching profession. (3) For convenient administration of 
the loan scholarships programme, a National Scholarship Board 
may be set up. 

(4) Others forms of Student Aid: (1) Transport facilities 
should be provided imaginatively to reduce the cost on hostels 
and scholarships. (2) Day Study Centres and lodging houses 
should be provided on a liberal scale. (3) Facilities for students 
to earn and pay a part of their educational expenses should be 
developed. (4) In all programmes of scholarships, preferential 
consideration should be given to the needs of girls. 

(5) Handicapped Children— (1) A reasonable target will 
however, be, to provide, by 1986, education for about 15% of the 
blind, deaf and othopaedically handicapped children and to about 
5% of the mentally retarded on ones. (2) There should be at 
least one institution for the education of the handicapped children 
in each district. (3) In the educationally advanced countries a 
great deal of stress is now being laid on the integration of the 
handicapped children into regular school programmes. (4) There 
must be a Teachers Training programme for the education of 
handicapped children. 

(6) Regional Imbalance : There are wide differences in the 
educational development in different states. A reduction of these 
differences to the minimum is desirable. This can be done on 
these lines : The district should be adopted as the basic unit for 
educational planning and development. (2) At the State level, 

42 Kofhari Commission 

there should be a deliberate policy of equalization of educational 
development in the different districts and the necessary adminis- 
trative and financial measures to this end should be taken. (3) 
At the national level, it should be regarded as the responsibility 
of the Government of India to secure equalization of educational 
development in the different states. 

(7) Education for Women : (1) The education of women 

should be regarded as a major programme in education for some 
years to come and bold and determined efforts should be made to 
face the difficulties involved and bridge the existing gap between 
the education of men and women in as short a time as possible. 

(2) Special schemes should be prepared for this purpose. (3) 
There should be special machinery to look-after girls’ education 
at the State and Central levels. (4) Teaching nursing and social 
service are well recognised jobs where women can have useful role 
to play. 

In addition, several new avenues will have to be opened out 
to them for earning their livelihood. 

(8) Education of Backward Classes— (1) The existing pro- 
gramme for the education of the scheduled castes should continue 
and be expanded. (2) Greater efforts are needed to provide 
educational facilities for the nomadic and semi-nomadic groups. 

(3) Hostels should be provided for the children of the denotified 

(9) Education of the Tribal People : The education of the 
tribal people deserve great emphasis and attention. 

1. At primary stage, the provisions of facilities will have to 
be improved and Ashram schools will have to be establi- 
shed in populated areas. 

2. The medium of education for the first two years should 
be tribal language and then the regional language. 

3. At the secondary stage, provision of schools, hostel 
facilities and scholarships programme will have to be 
decentralised and made more efficient. 

4. Provision for special tution will have to be made both at 
secondary and university stages. 

5. Non-official organizations working in the tribal areas 
should be encouraged. 

6. Special sub-cadre should be formed among the official 
ranks with the object of selecting persons for work in 

Towards Equalization of Educational Opportunities 43 

tribal areas. The emoluments for these sub cadres should 
be good enough to attract the best persons available. 

7. Promising young persons from tribes should be selected 
and specially trained to work in tribal areas. The usual 
prescriptions regarding the recruitment or minimum 
qualifications will often have to be set aside in this 


Article 15 of our constitution prohibits discrimination on 
grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth and makes 
special provision for the education of women and children. Simil- 
arly article 45 of Directive Principles enunciate that the State 
shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the 
commencement of the constitution free and compulsory education 
for all children until they complete the age of 14 years. 

The Commission fails to define the meaning of equality in 
education. Like liberty, equality of opportunity can only mean an 
equal chance to complete within the frame-work of national goals 
and the structure of rules, established in the society, The range of 
oportunity will naturally differ according to the needs and stages 
of the society. Lakshmi Menon says— “Unfortunately the 
Commission, in my opinon, does not give adequate consideration 
or thought to these factors. If it did, the Commission would be 
compelled to make suggestions which would be realistic but utterly 

We can think over some main points which have not been 
considered by the Commission in a systematic way or have been 
completely left out. 

1. Poor Country and Poverty : Our country is poor and the 
percentage of poverty is high. In the age of competition a poor 
person cann’t enjoy the opportunity meant for him. At present 
primary education is free and secondary education collects the 
fee. The Commission says— the proportion of free studentship 
is comparatively small and fee collected per student is high, but 
the report omits to mention what that equitable form is 

2. Poor Base : Our educational policy is concentrating on 

L Menon, Lakshmi— ‘The Education Commission and Equalisation of 
Educational Opportunities’. NIE Journal, Vol. 1 No. 2 November 
1966, Page 3. 

2. Ibid, Page 4. 

44 Kotliari Coramissiori 

the top of heavy structure with a weak, very weak base. To have 
equality of opportunity at the secondary stage, there must be 
equality in primary as well as the pre-primary stages. The 
Commission’s dreams of tutution free secondary and higher 
education wilt take decades to fulfil, if at all it fulfilled. Hence in 
equalities arising from poverty would not be remedied by a system 
of scholarship and tiution-free education. So the question of 
equalisation of educational opportunities is permanently bedevilled 
by proverty.® 

3. Education for Boys and Girls ; The problem of equalizing 
the education for boys and girls cannot be separated from regional 
imbalances like early marriage, a reluctance to understand changes 
in a society and absence of concern for girls. Hence the nature 
of education for girls and boys differs. The Commission should 
have laid down different programmes for this. 

4. Various Groups ; India is a country having great diver- 
sities. Here are many groups. The Commission thought over 
education the backward classes, tribes, nomadic and semi-nomadic 
group etc : but nothing new is suggested by the Commission. It 
has followed the existing way and techniques which are in practice. 

5. We and Planned Society : We are making a planned 
society. In a planned society every thing is based on planning. 
“Whatever the quantum of skills and talents available society 
can make use of only some, and at this stage of development of 
our country where conservation and economy are needed, policies 
of educational expansion should be closely watched and imple- 
mentation carefully regulated.”* 

The draft plan, while admitting that scholarships from an 
important means of equalizing opportunities and encouraging 
talents, says that the scholarships will be given largely as loans, 
and it is expected that the scholarships and free concession will 
rise to 57 crores by 1970-71. The amount of scholarships is in a 
way immaterial unlesss it is properly disbursed to detect and train 
talent were talent is suppressed by poverty.® 

6. Need of a Progressive Educational Policy : To sum up 
the discussion we can say that if the Commission wants to see the 
implementation of its recommendations successfully, the need is 
to form a progressive educational policy. Dr. V. N. Kothari 

3. /i)/WPase4. 

4. Idl'd Page 6. 

5. Ibid Page 6. 

Towards Equalization of Educational Opportunities 45 

says — “Education system should be able to supply a sufficient 
number of educated persons in different branches of knowledge 
and technology so that economic development is not held back 
for want of trained personnel. Thus education system can be 
linked with the manpower and planning.”® 

J. P. Naik (1968) has made certain observation on equali- 
zation of educational opportunities — ‘The opportunities for free 
education have been considerably expanded. Elementary edu- 
cation is free or very largely free in all parts of the country, x X 
The inequalities of development at the state and district levels 
have been reduced to some extent and the educational gap bet- 
ween urban and rural areas has been some what bridged. There 
has been a large increase in the provision of facilities for the 
education of handicapped children, and under privileged groups 
like scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are now taking increas- 
ingly to education. One important programme which has been 
successfully implemented is to promote higher education among 
these groups by providing a scholarship to almost every student 
who completes the secondary school and desires to study further.’^ 
The basic purpose of the programme to provide equal oppor- 
tunities has a great importance for crepting and promoting the 
balanced leadership. Ashok Mehta says, — ‘When scarcity rules 
a people the need for a clear focus, deeper understanding, collec- 
tive discipline hard work and dedicated leadership becomes 

6 Dr. Kothari. V. N— ‘Economic Issues in Education Policy’ 
Education and Psychology Review, Page 8. Vol VIII No. IJan. 1967, 

7. Naik J. P. Education in the Fourth Plan. P. 89-90. 

(5. Mehta Ashok. Quoted by J. P. Naik. Ibid. Page 114, 


School Education : 
Piroblem of Expansion 

The problem of expansion of school education is increasing 
with increase of population every year. Thus the need is felt to 
open new schools at primary and secondary stage. At this stage 
we have to face the problems of pre-primary, primary and secon- 
dary education day by day. Day to day problems are the head- 
ache to fhe educationists and the educational planners because 
one problem is solved ane another comes to replace it. The com- 
mission has recommended many new things to solve the problem 
of educational expansion at the stage mentioned above. 

I. THE recommendations 

The entire pre-university period of education should be 
treated as one single and continuous unit. It may be divided 
into sub standards or sub-units as the similarities between the 
problems of the different sub-stages are more significant than the 

(1) Pre-primary Education : Pre-primary education should 
be on the following lines during the next twenty year ; 

1. State level development centres for pre-primary education 
should be set up in each State Institute of Education ; 
in addition a district level centre should be set up in 
each district for the development, supervision and gui- 
dance of pre-education in the area. 

2. Private enterprise should be made largely responsible 
for setting up in running pre-primary centres, the State 
should assist with grant-in-aid on the basis of equali- 

3. Experimentation in pre-primary education should be 
encouraged especially to devise less costly method is 
expanding it. 

4. The State should maintain State and District level play 
centres, train pre-primary teachers, look after research 
^nd pre-primary of literature on preparation education, 

School Education ; Problem of Expansion 47 

supervise and guide pre-primary schools and training 
institution, assist private agencies with grant-in-aid and 
run model pre-primary schools. 

5. The programme of pre-primary schools should be flexible 
and consist of various types of play, mannual and lear- 
ning activities accompanied by sensorial education. 

(l) Expansion of Primary Education : The objective of pri- 
mary education should be to prepare individuals to be respon- 
sible and useful citizens. 

1. Five years of good and effective education should be 
provided to all children by 1975-76. 

2. Seven years of such education should be provided by 

3. Emphasis should be laid on the reduction of wastage 
and stagnation. 

4. Children who are not yet fourteen years old at the end 
class VII and who do not wish to study further should 
be retained in the educational system till they complete 
14 years of age. They should be provided with short 
vocational courses of their choice. 

5. Each State and district should be required to primary 
a perspective plan for the development of primary edu- 
cation in its area in the light of the targets stated above 
and its local conditions. 

(3) Universal Provision of School : The expansion of pri- 
mary schools should be so planned that a lower primary school 
is available within a distance of about a mile from the home of 
every child. A higher primary school should be available within 
one to three miles from the home of every child, 

(4) Universal Enrolment : (1) The present hetrogeneity of 
cohrent in class I should be reduced and bulk of the students in 
this class should consist of children in the age group 5-6 or 6-7. 
A system of pre-registration should be introduced. (2) The 
transfer rate of students from the end of the lower primary stage 
to the higher primary stage should be raised to 100% by the end 
of the fifth Plan. 

(5) Universality of Retention : (1) Stagnation and wastage 

are very high in class I and their reduction should be a major 
programme. These measures should be adopted, (i) Treating 
glasses I and II (where possible classes I to IV) as one integrated 

48 Kothari Commission 

unit, (ii) Introducing a year of pre-school education, (iii) Adop- 
ting play-way techniques in class I. (2) Stagnation and wastage 
in other classes should be reduced by providing various forms of 
part-time education, by implementing a nation wide programme 
of school improvement and by an intensive programme of paren- 
tal education. (2) All children in the age group 11-14 not atten- 
ding schools and who have not completed the primary stage of 
education and become functionally literate should be required to 
attend literacy classes for a period at least one year. The classes 
should be organised in primary schools and on a flexible manner 
to suit the convenience of the pupils. They should begin on a 
voluntary basis but compulsion may be tried when the local 
community has become familiar with the concept. (4) Similar 
facilities for part-time education should be provided for children 
who have completed the lower primary stage and have a desire to 
study further. 

(6) Education of Girls : Primary Stage : The education of 
girls requires special attention in fulfilling the constitutional direc- 
tive and should be accelerated on the lines recommended by the 
National Committee on Women Education. 

(7) Education of Girls : Secondary Stage : (1) Efforts 
should be made to accelerate the expansion of girls education so 
that the proportion of girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at the lower 
secondary stage and 1 : 3 at the secondary stage in 20 years. 
(2) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools 
for girls, provision of hostels and scholarships and part time and 
vocational courses. 

(S) Expansion of Secondary Education : (1) Enrolment in 
secondary education should be regulated during the next 20 years 
by — (i) proper planning of the location of secondary schools, 
(ii) maintaining adequate standards, by determining enrolment in 
terms of facilities available. (2) A development plan for secon- 
dary education should be prepared for each district and imple- 
mented in a period of ten years. (3) The best students should be 
selected for admission into secondary schools through a process 
of self-selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of 
external examination results and school records at higher secon- 
dary stage. 

(9) Vocationalizing Secondary Education : (1) Secondary 

education should be vocationalized in a large measure and enrol- 
ments in vocation courses raised to 20% of the total enrolment at 

School Education : Problem of Expansion 49 


the lower secondary stage and 50% of total enrolment at the 
higher secondary stage by 1986. (2) A variety of part-time and 
full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at 
both levels to meet the needs of boys and girls in urban and rural 
areas. (3) The Central Government should provide special grants 
to State Governments in the centrally sponsored sector for the 
vocationalization of secondary education. 

(10) Part-time Education : Facilities for part-time edu- 
cation should be provide oh a large scale at lower and higher 
secondary stage in general and vocational courses. XXX Special 
emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses for those 
who have taken farming as a vocation and on courses in Home- 
science or Household industries for girls. 

(11) Planning and Location of Schools: (1) A national 
policy for the location of new institutions of each category should 
be adopted so as to avoid waste and duplication. The second 
educational survey should be used for the careful planning of the 
location of educational institutions. (2) Public opinion should be 
educated to accept mixed schools at the primary stage and the 
sharing of bigger and efficient schools in common. Villages 
should be grouped so as to make the economic provision of 
primary schools possible. (3) At the secondary stage, the estab- 
lishment of small and uneconomic institutions should be avoided 
and existing uneconomic schools should be consolidated 
(4) Vocational schools should be located near the concerned 


Education Commission suggests an integrated approach to 
school education to solve the problem of expansion. The Com- 
mission accepts the whole process of formal education into two 
ways — Pre-university and Higher education. From pre-primary 
to preuniversity stage, it suggests the various means and methods 
to meet the problem. The main recommendation for it, is that 
the provision of school within easy distance from the home of 
every child. Part time and own time educational opportunities 
are recommended for those who gives up education in the way. 
District Educational Plans based on educational survey will be 
proved boon to face the challenge of expansion. 

The Education Commission recommends a two-phased pro- 
gramme to provide free and compulsory education to children 

50 Kothari Commission 

upto the age of 14 by 1985-86 as directed by the constitution, 

(i) The first phase should consist of five years of good and effec- 
tive education to all children by 1975-76. (ii)The second phase 
should also consist of seven years ef good and effective education 
to all chidren by 1985-86. 

(1) Avoidance of Wastage : The Commission is of the 
opinion that wastage and stagnation should be reduced so that 
not less than 80% of children who enter class I, reached class VII. 

(2) The Location : It is good that the Commission has 
thought over the problem of location of schools. Lack of equal 
distribution of schools is found everywhere. Considering it, the 
Commission has made provision for this. The location of primary 
school should be so planned that a lower primary school be within 
a mile and a higher primary school within three miles from the 
home of the student. 

(3) The Girl’s Education : The education of girls at pri- 
mary stage requires special attention and should be accelerated by 
measures recommended by the National Committee on Women’s 

(4) The Enrolment : The Commission calls for a regulation 
of enrolment in secondary schools during the next 20 years thro- 
ugh planning the location of secondary schools, maintaining ade- 
quate standards and selecting the best stdents. A development 
plan for secodary education should be drawn up for each district 
and must be implemented in ten years. 

(5) Vocationalization : We feel the need of vocational 
training during the educational period. The commission has 
recommended that secondary education should be vocationalized 
on a large scale and enrolments in vocational courses raised to 
20% on the total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and 
5( % of the total enrolment and the higher secondary stage. 
Emphasis should be laid on establishing separate school for girls, 
provision of hostels and scholarships, part-time and voctional 

(6) A National Policy : A national policy for the location 
of new schools should be adopted to avoid wastage and duplica- 
tion. At the secondary stage, the establishment of small and 
uneconomic institutions should be avoided and existing unecono- 
mic schools should be consolidated. 

School Curriculum 

Education is regarded as a life long and tri-polar process 
based on teacher, taught and curriculum. Our Commission 
has not neglected the third pole. We can rather say that special 
emphasis has been laid on this third pole of education. The 
Commission wants that a unified approach should be taken to the 
framing of the entire school curriculum, a new definition of the 
Content of general education and a new. approach to the place of 


The following are the recommendations of the Commissions. 

(1) Essentials of Curricular Improvement : (I) School curricula 
should be upgraded through research in curriculum development 
undertaken by University Departments of Education,- Training 
Colleges, State Institutes of Education and Board of School Edu- 
cation. (i) Periodical revision based on such research, (ii) The 
preparation of text books and teaching learning materials, 
(iii) The orientation of teachers to the revised curricula through 
in service education. 

2. Schools should be given the freedom to devise and 
experiment with new curricula suited to their needs. A 
lead should be given in the matter by training colleges 
and universities through their experimental schools. 

3. Ordinary and advance curricula should be prepared by 
State Board of Education in all subjects and introduced 
in a phased manner in schools which fulfil certain 
conditions of staff and facilities. 

4. The formation of Subject Teacher’s Associations in 

different school-subjects will help to stimulate experi- 
mental and in the upgrading of curricula. SIE^ and 
NCERT^ should help them in co-ordination. 

1. State Institute of Education. 

2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 

52 Kothari Commission 

(2) Organisation of the Curricuia : (I) In non-vocational 
schools, a common curriculum of general education should be 
provided for the first ten years of school education and diversifi- 
cation of studies and specialisation should begin only at the 
higher secondary stage. 

2. Standards of attainment should be clearly defined at the 
end of each sub-stage. 

3. At the lower primary stage, the curriculum should be 
simple with reduced load of formal subjects and emphasis 
on language, elementary mathematics and environmental 

4. At the higher primary stage, the curriculum will broaden 
and deepen, teaching methods, will become more syste- 
matic and standards of attainment more specific. 

5. At the lower secondary stage study of subjects will gain 
in rigour and depth. 

6. At the higher secondary stage, courses will be diversified 
in such a manner as to enable pupils to study of any 
three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and 
elasticity in grouping of subjects. 

7. At the higher primary stage, enrichment programmes 
should be provided for the talented children. It may 
take the form of additional subject or greater depth in 
the same subject. 

8. At the secondary stage, courses should be provided at 
two levels ordinary and advanced, in beginning with 
class VII, 

(3) Study of Languages : The study of language at the 
school stage needs revival and a new policy requires to be 

1. The modification of the language formula should be 
guided by the following important principles : (i) Hindi as the 

official language of the Union enjoys an importance next only fo 
that of the mother tongue, (ii) A working knowledge of English 
will continue to be an asset to students, (iii) The proficiency 
gained in a language depends as much upon the teachers and 
facilities as upon the length of time in which it is learned, fiv) The 
most suitable stage for learning three languages is the lower 
secondary. (Classes VIH-X). (v) The introduction of two additional 

School Curriculum 53 

languages should be staggered, (vi) Hindi or English should be 
introduced at a point when there is greatest motivation and need, 
(vii) At no stage should the learning of four languages be made 
compulsory. 2 The three language formula modified on these 
principles should include, (i) The mother-tongue or the regional 
language, (ii) The official language or the associate official langu- 
age of the Union so long as it exist, (iii) A modern Indian or' 
European language not covered under (i) and (ii) and other than 
used as the medium of education. 

3. At the lower primary stage the pupil will ordinarily 
study only one language the mother-tongue or the 
regional language At the higher primary stage, he will 
study two languages, the mother tongue (or the regional 
language) and the official language of the Union (or 
the associate language). At the lower secondary stage, 
he will study three languages, the mother-tongue (or the 
regional language); the official or associate official 
languages and modern Indian language, it being obli- 
gatory to study the official or the associate official 
language which he had not studied at the higher primary 
stage. At the higher secondary stage, only two languages 
will be compulsory. 

4. The study of important modern library languages other 
than Euglish should be made possible in lieu of English 
in each State with option to study them in lieu of English 
or Hindi. Similarly, in non-Hindi areas, the study of 
modern Indian languages should be made possible in 
selected schools with a similar option to study them in 
lieu of English or Hindi. 

5. The study of English and Hindi will be indicated in 
terms of hours of study and level of attainment. Two 
levels of attainment should be prescribed in the official 
and associate official languages— one for a three year and 
one for a six years study. 

6. The study of a language should not be compulsory in 
higher education.. 

7. A nation-wide programme should be organised for the 
promotion of the study of Hindi on a voluntary basis 
but the study of the language should not be forced on 
unwilling sections of people. 

54 Kothari Commission 

8. The burden of studying languages is made heavier 
because of great differences in script. Some literature in 
every Modern Indian Languages should be produced in 
Devnagari and Roman scripts. All modern Indian 
languages should also adopt the international numerals. 

9. The teaching of English should not begin ordinarily 
earlier than class V, till adequate command has been 
acquired over mother-tongue. The introduction of the 
study of English earlier than- class V is educationally 

10. The study of classical Indian languages such as Sanskrit 
or Arabic should be encouraged on an optional basis 
from class VII and should be positively emphasized in 
all universities. Advance centres may be set up in 
selected universities in these languages. No new Sanskrit 
University should be established. 

(4) Science and Mathematics Education : Science and Mathe- 
matics should be taught on a compulsory basis to all pupils as a 
part of general education during the first ten years of schooling. 

(i) The Study of Science (1) In the lower primary stage science 
teaching should be related to child’s environment. (2) At the 
primary stage emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of 
knowledge and the ability to think logically, to draw conclusions 
and to make decisions at a higher level. (3) A science corner in 
lower primary schools and a laboratory-cum-lecture room in 
higher primary schools are minimum essential requirements, (4) 

At the lower secondary stage science should be developed as a 
discipline of the mind. (5) Science courses at an advanced level 
may be provided for talented students in selected lower secondary 
schools with necessary facilities of staff and laboratory. (6) 
Science teaching should be linked to agriculture in rural areas 
and technology in urban areas. 

(ii) The Study of Mathematics (1) Special attention should 
be given to the study of mathematics in view of the importance of 
qualification and the advent of automation and cybernetics. (2) 
Curriculum in mathematics needs to be modernized and made 
up-to date at all stages with emphasis on laws and principles of 
mathematics and logical thinking. 

(iii) Methods of Teaching Science and Mathematics. Methods 
of teaching Science and Mathematics should be modernized, 

School Curriculum 55 

stressing the investigatory approach and the understanding of 
basic principles. 

(5) Social Studies and Social Science (1) An effective 
programme of social studies is essential for the development of 
good citizenship and emotional integration. (2) The syllabus 
should stress the ideas of national unity of man. (3) The scientific 
spirit and social science should permeate teaching of social 

(6) Work Experience (1) Work experience should be 
forward looking in keeping with the character of the new social 
order. It will take the form of simple hand-work in the lower 
primary classes and of craft in the upper-primary classes. At 
the lower secondary stage, it will be in the form of workshop 
training, and at the higher secondary stage, work experience will 
be provided in the school workshop, farm or commercial and 
industrial establishment. (2) Where school workshops can not 
be provided, suitable kits of tools and materials should be made 
available at lower cost. (3) The training of teachers, provision of 
workshops, mobilisation of local resources, preparation of litera- 
ture and the phased introduction of the programme are essential 
to the success of the scheme. 

(7) Social Service (1) Programmes of social service and 
participation in community development should be organised at 
all levels as studied to the different age-groups in a phased 
manner. (2) Labour and social service camps should be run 
through out year and for this purpose a special organisation set-up 
in each district. The camps will facilitate the organisation of 
social service programmes in schools. 

(8) Physical Education. Physical education is important 
for the physical fitness and efficiency, mental alertness and the 
development of certain qualities of character. 

(9) Education in Moral and Spiritual Values (1) Deliberate 
attempt should be made for imparting moral education and 
including spiritual values in schools through direct and indirect 
methods with the help of the ethical teaching of great religions. 
(2) One or two periods a week should be set aside in the school 
time-table for instruction in moral and spiritual values. The 
treatment of the subject should be comprehensive and not divorced 
from the rest of the curriculum. 

56 Kolhari Commission 

(10) Creative Activities (1) The Government of India should 
appoint a committee of experts to survey the present situation of 
art education and explore all possibilities for its extension and 
systematic development, (2) Bal-Bhawans should be set up in all 
parts of the country with substantial support from the local 
community. (3) Art departments should be set up in selected 
university centres to carryout research in art-education. (4) A 
variety of co-curricular activities should be organised to provide 
pupils opportunity for creative self-expression. 

(11) Differentiation of Curricula for Boys and Girls 

The recommendations of the Hansa Mehta committee that 
there should be no differentiation of curricula on the basis of sex 
is endorsed. Home Science should be provided as an optional 
subject but not made compulsory for girls. Larger provision 
should be made for music and fine arts; and the study of mathe- 
matics and science should be encouraged. 

(12) The New Curriculum and Basic Education 

The essential principles of basic education, namely, pro- 
ductive activity, correlation of curriculum with productive activity 
and the environment and contact with local community, are so 
important that they should guide and shape the educational 
system at all levels, this is the essence of the proposals made in 
the report. No single stage of education need be designated as 
basic education. 


The Commission has stated, ‘The explosion of knowledge in 
recent years and the reformation of many concepts in the science 
have highlighted the inadequacy of existing school programmes 
and brought about a mounting pressure for radical reform of 
school curriculum, A unified approach should be taken to the 
framing of the entire school curriculum, a new definition of 
content of general education and new approach to the place of 

The commission has suggested the entire overhauling of the 
curriculum. It has laid emphasis on science education and on pro- 
ductivity through work-experience. Dr. D. S. Kothari says— “For 
a hungry man or a hungry woman, truth has little meaning. He 
wants food. And India is a hungry starving country, and to talk of 
Truth and God, and even of many of the fine things of life, to the 
million who are starving, is a mockery, x X x So, science must 

School Curriculum 5l 

think in terms of the few hundred million persons In India. 
Obviously, you can only think in those terms and work along 
those lines on the wider scale of co-ordinated planning.”^ 

We can conclude the whole suggestions like this. 

n) Upgrading the curriculum, introducing advanced and 
enrichment-programmes and opportunities for more free- 
dom and experimentation. 

(2) Reorganisation of curriculum. 

(3) An orientation towards Science throughout the period of 
general education and a new approach to social studies. 

(4) A modihcafion of the three language formula. 

(5) Introduction of work-experience and social service on a 
compulsory basis for all students at all levels. 

(6) Instruction in moral and spiritual values as a regular 
• part of the curriculum. 

“In view of the general standard of education in our schools 
the poor quality text books, the illequipped and under-paid 
teachers, the lack of physical resources, this programme of quali- 
tative improvement required Herculean efforts for implementa- 
tion.*'® Ranjini Kumar throws the light on the unsuccessful curri- 
culum and teaching. 

Work-experience is a new programme based on the producti 
vity principle of Basic education. Work-experience has been intro- 
duced by the Commission to the life of the school. It is to be 
enforced on a compulsory basis at all levels so as to link education 
with productivity and create in the students the right attitudes to 
labour and indentification with the life around. 

The main controversy is on language issue as recommended 
by the Commission. The Commission is in favour of English and 
holds that it will be necessary to adopt English as the normal 
medium of education in the major universities in order to main- 
tain their all Indian Character. The fact is that the school curri- 
culum is in a state of flux all over the world today. The causes 
of this are— (i) tremendous explosion of the knowledge, (ii) relink- 
ing of school education, (iii) inclusion of significant items in 

1 jcothari, D. 5 .— ‘Education, Science and the Community.’ Naya 
Shikshak.Vol. VII No. 3 ; Jan- 1966, Page 5-6. 

2. Rajini Kumar, Symposium, NIE Jourral Vol. I. No. 2 Nov. 1966 

page 9. 

58 Kolhari Commissidn 

already overpacked programme; (iv) lack of dynamic and stimu- 
lating methods. All these factors are responsible for the reform 
of school curriculum. The following comments are given here 
about school curriculum. 

1. Teaching of English from School Stage : While stressing 
that the mother-tongue and the regional languages should be the 
medium of instruction in schools and higher institutions, the Edu- 
cation Commission advocates the study of English right from the 

school stage. In its report, the Commission says it would be 
desirable to establish a few institutions, both at the school and 
university level, with some important world language as their 
teaching medium. English should, however, continue to serve as 
the link language in higher education for academic work and 
intellectual dialogue. But it adds, “It is, however, equally obvious 
that English can not he the hnk language for the majority of our 
people. It is only Hindi which can and should take this place in 
due course. As it is the official language of the Union and the 
link language of the people all measures should be adopted to 
spread it in the non-Hindi areas.” • 

2. Multiple channels ; “In addition to Hindi, multiple chan- 
nels of inter-State communication in all the modern Indian langu- 
age should be provided.” The Commission feels that the mother 
tongue has a pre-eminent claim as the medium of instruction at 
the school and college stage. Regional languages should be adopt- 
ed at the higher stage. The University grants Commission and 
the universities should work out a programme for the adoption 
of these recommendations suited to each university or a group of 
universities. “The change over should be completed within 10 
years”, the report says. “Energetic action is needed to produce 
books and literature, particularly scientific and technical, in the 
regional languages. This should be made the responsibility of 
universities assisted by the University Grants Commission.” 

The Commission recommends that all Indian institutions 
should continue to use English as the medium of instruction. The 
eventual adoption of Hindi should however, be considered in due 
course, subject to certain safeguards. 

3. Regional Languages : The Commission recommends that 
the regional languages should be made the languages of adminis- 
tration in the regions concerned as early as possible so that the 
higher services are not barred to those who study in the regional 

School Curriculum 59 

medium. It feels that in every linguistic region there should be a 
number of people knowing other modern Indian languages, fami- 
liar with their literature and able to contribute them. For this pur- 
pose there should be adequate arrangements in schools and 
colleges to teach different modern Indian languages. Steps should 
be taken to establish strong departments in some of the modern 
Indian languages at every university. At the B. A. and M. A. 
levels should be possible to combine two modern Indian languages. 

4. Third Language is Unnecessary : Mr. V. R. Nedunche- 
zhian, Education Minister of Madras, said at Maduri ,on 15th 
March, ’67 that so far as Madras State was concerned, two langu- 
ages,' Tamil, the mother tongue, and English — would suffice to 
meet the requirements of the State in the sphere of education and 
administration. He did not feel the necessity for a third language. 
But the Government would provide opportunities for any student 
who wanted to learn any additional language. The learning of 
additional languages would be optional. Tamilian to converse 
with a non-Tamilian and to have contact with the outside world, 
the knowledge of English was absolutely essential. So English 
must retained. English was also necessary for the pursuit of 
higher studies in such professions as Medicine, Engineering and 
Lcience. A student at the time of leaving the college should have 
the capacity to speak as fluently in English as in Tamil. Students 
should understand pure politics, but should not get themselves 
involved in party politics. Their interests in politics should be 
such as not to hinder their education. 

5. Why Radical Reform in School Curriculum ? 'The explosion 
of knowledge in recent years and the reshaping of many scientiflc 
concepts have high lighted the inadequacy of the existing School 
Science programmes and brought about “mounting pressure” for 
a radical reform of the curriculum’, says the Education Commis- 
sion in its report. 

It says that a "unifled approach” should be taken to the 
entire school curriculum, with a new definition of the content of 
general education and a new attitude to specialization. 

School curriculum should be upgraded through research in 
curriculum development by university departments of education, 
training colleges, State Institutes of Education and Boards of 
Schools Education, revision of curriculum based on such research, 
the preparation text books and learning materials and the orien- 

60 Kotliari Commission 

tation of teachers to the revised curriculum through “in service’^ 
education. Schools should be free to devise and experiment with 
new curriculum suited to their needs. Training colleges and 
universities should give a lead through their experimental schools. 
State Boards of School Education should prepare advanced 
curriculum in all subjects and introduce them in a phased 
manner in schools which fulfil certain staff condition and provide 

‘In general or non-vocational schools a common curriculum of 
general education should be provided for the first JO years and 
diversification of studies and specialization should begin only 
at the higher secondary stage. Standards of attainment should 
be clearly defined at the end of each sub-stage’, the Commission 
says. Language study at the school stage needs revival and 
“a new policy regarding language study at this stage required to 
be formulated, particularly in view of the fact, that English has 
been recognised as an associate official language for an indefinite 

6. Guiding Principles : Modification of the language formula 
should be guided by the following principles — 

1. Hindi as the official language of the Union enjoys an 
importance next only to that of the mother tongue. 

2. A working knowledge of English will continue to be an 
asset to the student. 

3. Proficiency in language depends as much on the types of 
teachers and facilities as on the length of time in which it 
is learned. 

4. The most suitable stage for learning three languages is 
the lower secondary (classes VIII-X) where smaller num- 
ber of teachers will be needed. 

5. The introduction of two additional languages should be 

6. Hindi or English should be introduced at the point of 
greatest motivation and need. 

7. At no stage should the learning of four languages be 
made compulsory. 

7. Dull Teaching ; The Commission blames the rigidity of 
the educational system for the dull and uninspiring school teach- 

1. Hindustan Times -Dated 30, 6, 1966. 

School Gurriculum 61 

ing today. ‘There should be a general atmosphere of reform. 
Experimental elforts should be encouraged and the new methods 
of teaching diffused among all schools and teachers.” 

The production of quality text books being a key factor in 
raising standards, the Education Ministry should establish in the 
public sector, an autonomous organisation functioning on com- 
mercial lines to publish text books at the national level. A small 
committee could work out the details of the scheme. Preparation 
and production of text books should be the responsibility of State 
Education Departments and should operate on a no-profit, no- 
loss basis. 

Guidance and Counselling should be considered an integral 
part of education at all stages. To begin with a visiting counsellor 
should be appointed fora group of 10 schools. Talented students 
should be helped to develop in an atmosphere of free expression 
If talent is located early, it should be channelled properly, the 
report says. Slow learners and backward children should be given 
individual attention and their problems diagnozed through child 
clinics and Parent Teacher Associations. 

The new approach in evaluation' should be to improve written 
examinations, the universal mode of evaluation in India in such a 
way that it becomes a valid test of the student’s educational 
achievement A common internal examination for inter school 
comparability could be held at the end of the primary stage of 
education. This would be held at the end of the primary stage 
of education. This would be more reliable than school tests. 
Question papers should be oriented towards particular objectives 
other than the acquisition of information and at certain stage oral 
tests should be employed. / 

The report recommends that the certificate given by a board 
of school at the end of school education should only state the 
performance of the student in different subjects without declaring 
that he has passed or failed the entire examination. The school 
should also give a certificate based on the internal assessment of 
a student’s work. A student should be able to seek a job or entry 
into a vocational training institution on the basis of the school 
certificate alone. The report says the board should allow students 
to appear for an examination to enable them to improve their 
marks in particular subjects. Experimental schools should be 
established with powers to assess their own students and give certi- 
ficate equivalent to the external board of examination. 

60 Ptolliari Commission 

(ation of teachers to the revised curriculum through “in service” 
education. Schools should be free to devise and experiment with 
new curriculum suited to their needs. Training colleges and 
universities should give a lead through their experimental schools. 
Slate Boards of School Education should prepare advanced 
curriculum in all subjects and introduce them in a phased 
manner in schools which fulfil certain staff condition and provide 

‘In general or non-vocational schools a common curriculum of 
general education should be provided for the first 10 years and 
diversification of studies and specialization should begin only 
at the higher secondary stage. Standards of attainment should 
be clearly defined at the end of each sub-stage’, the Commission 
says. Language study at the school stage needs revival and 
“a new policy regarding language study at this stage required to 
be formulated, particularly in view of the fact, that English has 
been recognised as an associate official language for an indefinite 

6. Guiding Principles : Modification of the language formula 
should be guided by the following principles— 

1 . Hindi as the official language of the Union enjoys an 
importance next only to that of the mother tongue. 

2. A working knowledge of English will continue to be an 
asset to the student. 

3. Proficiency in language depends as much on the types of 
teachers and facilities as on the length of time in which it 
is learned. 

4. The most suitable stage for learning three languages is 
the lower secondary (classes VIII-X) where smaller num- 
ber of teachers will be needed. 

5. The introduction of two additional languages should be 

6. Hindi or English should be introduced at the point of 
greatest motivation and need. 

7. At no stage should Ihe learning of four languages be 
made compulsory. 

7. Dull Teaching : The Commission blames the rigidity o 
the educational system for the dull and uninspiring school teach- 

1. Hindustan Times— Dated 30, 6, 1966. 

School Gurriculum 61 

ing today. ‘There should be a general atmosphere of reform. 
Experimental efforts should be encouraged and the new methods 
of teaching diffused among all schools and teachers.” 

The production of quality text books being a key factor in 
raising standards, the Education Ministry should establish in the 
public sector, an autonomous organisation functioning on com- 
mercial lines to publish text books at the national level. A small 
committee could work out the details of the scheme. Preparation 
and production of text books should be the responsibility of State 
Education Departments and should operate on a no-profit, no- 
loss basis. 

Guidance and Counselling should be considered an integral 
part of education at all stages. To begin with a visiting counsellor 
should be appointed for a group of 10 schools. Talented students 
should be helped to develop in an atmosphere of free expression 
If talent is located early, it should be channelled properly, the 
report says. Slow learners and backward children should be given 
individual attention and their problems diagnozed through child 
clinics and Parent Teacher Associations. 

The new approach in evaluation should be to improve written 
examinations,' the universal mode of evaluation in India in such a 
way that it becomes a valid test of the student’s educational 
achievement A common internal examination for inter school 
comparability could be held at the end of the primary stage of 
education. This would be held at the end of the primary stage 
of education. This would be more reliable than school tests. 
Question papers should be oriented towards particular objectives 
other than the acquisition of information and at certain stage oral 
tests should be employed. y 

The report recommends that the certificate given by a board 
of school at the end of school education should only state the 
performance of the student in different subjects without declaring 
that he has passed or failed the entire examination. The school 
should also give a certificate based on the internal assessment of 
a student’s work. A student should be able to seek a job or entry 
into a vocational training institution on the basis of the school 
certificate alone. The report says the board should allow students 
to appear for an examination to enable them to improve their 
marks in particular subjects. Experimental schools should be 
established with powers to assess their own students and give certi- 
ficate equivalent to the external board of examination. 

62 Kothari Commission 

8. Science Study ; Science education should become an 
integral part of school education and ultimately become a part of 
all courses at university level, the Commission said. Attempt 
should be made to orient work experience to technology and 
industrialization and Science should be applied to productivity 
process, including agriculture. 

9. The Three Language Formula— An Operation^ : 

Classes — I-IV : One language should be compulsory. 

It will naturally be the mother-tongve. 

Classes — A-VIII : Two languages (Regional or mother 

tongue) and official (Hindi or English) 

Classes — IX-X : Three languages should be obligatory. 

Classes — XI-XII : The study of no language should be 


10. Hindi is Ignored : According to Dr. Seth Govind Dass, 

‘I do not understand why English should be a compulsory language 
to be taught to the students. I am not against learning English 
or any other language but there should not be any compulsion in 
this respect. This Commission has recommended a modified three 
language formula which in its context meant that it will not be 
necessary for students to learn Hindi which is constitutionally the 
official language of the Union. This recommended formula in my 
view is quite antinational and against the Constitution’.^ 

11. Sanskrit has no Value : Dr. Sampurnanand accused the 
Education Commission of grave default in their scanty references 
to Sanskrit. He attributed their lack of enthusiasm to the com- 
mission. He suggested that the Commission’s report should be 

The study of our heritage, treasured in Sanskrit classics 
would rank below the search far precision in our list of objectivec 
for access to the sources of our heritage is now possible even 
without Sanskrit, x X x The cause of Sanskrit is not served by 
exagerating its claims. 

Apart from the language problem, other suggestions are 
honoured by the educationists. 

1. Agarwa] J. C. — Major Recommendation of Education Commission. 
Page 85. 

2. The Patriot— 3rd July, 1966. 

3. John V. V.— ‘On Not Learning Sanskrit’, Hindustan Tmi«. 

Teaching Methods, Guidance 

And Evaluation 

Modern teaching is book and material-aid centred. The 
teacher, teaching in the class, always takes the help of various 
devices of teaching. These devices can be named, black board, 
charts, maps, models, magic lantern, projector, etc. Another 
problem of guiding the students and evaluating their but-put 
which they earn during learning tenure goes side by side. 

Apart from this, size of the class, school building, education 
of the back ward, children etc. are the other aspects which should be 
considered for effective teaching and better results. Our Commi- 
ssion has recommended various useful point to solve the problems 
mentioned above. 


(1) Teaching Methods : Discovery and Diffusion : The main 
factors responsible for dull and uninspiring school teaching to 
day are the rigidity of the educational system and the failure of 
administrative machinery to diffuse new education practices to 
schools. The weakness should be overcome. 

A good educational system should be dynamic, flexible and 
discriminating enough to help institutions and teachers. 

1. Teacher should be supported by the administrative 
authority for creating a general atmosphere of reform 
and he should be supported by the head of the insti- 

2. The educational administration can encourage and hasten 
the diffusion of new teaching methods by (i) combining 
permissiveness with persuation. (ii) suggesting the 
employment of new methods at different stages according 

' to the ability of schools, (iii) giving necessary in-service 

training to teachers, (iv) providing adequate guide 
materials which should be constantly revised and 

64 Kothari Commission 

(2) Text books, Teachers Guides and Materials : (1) Pro* 
vision of quality text-books and other teaching learning materials 
is a key programme for raising standards at comparatively low 

2. A comprehensive programme of text-book production at 
the national level should be implemented by mobilizing 
the text book talent in the country on the lines already 
being attempted by NCERT. They will also help in 
national integration. 

3. The Ministry of Education should take steps to establish 
in the public sector, an autonomous functioning on 
commercial lines for the production of text books. A 
small committee may be set up to work out the details 
of the project. 

4. The effort at the national level should be supported and 
augmented by each state setting up an expert section 
for the production of text books. 

5. The preparation, try out and evaluation of text books 
should be the responsibility of the State Education 
Departments. The sale and distribution of text books 
are better left to the student co-operatives and not be 
assumed directly by the departments. 

6. The production of text books and teaching aids at the 
State level should preferably be entrusted to an auto- 
nomous agency functioning in close liaison with the 
education department. 

7. At least 3 or 4 books should be provided in each subject 
to provide a multiple choice of books for the schools. 

8. Liberal policies should be adopted for remunerating 

9. The entire organisation of State production of text books 
should be run on a non-profit basis. 

10. Teachers’ guides and others instructional material should 
supplement text books. 

11. Lists of minimum teaching aids and equipment needed 
by each category of schools should be prepared and 
steps taken to provide the equipment to every school 
on a high priority basis. 

12. Education departments should work with the All India 
Radio for the use of Radio and Television lessons supp- 

Teaching Methods, Guidance and Evaluation 65 

lemented by printed guide materials for teachers and 

13. Teachers should be helped and trained to rely on inex- 
pensive and locally available or improved teaching aids. 
Costly equipment should be shared by schools in neigh- 

(3) Size, of the class .: (1) It is necessary to restrict the 

number of pupils admitted to each class to a maximum of 50 in 
the lower primary, 45 in the higher primary and lower secondary 
and 40 in higher secondary.. . , 

2. Research should be taken in the problems and techni- 
ques of multiple-class teaching. Training institutions 
should orient to these techniques. 

(4) School building : ( 1) It is necessary to take steps to clear 
the backlog of unconstructed school buildings as well as to pro- 
vide additional building for new enrolment. 

2. Loans and grant-in-aid should be given on a liberal 
basis to private schools for the construction of buildings. 

3. In view of the shortage of traditional building material 
and the cost involved, will designed and constructed 
Kaclto structures should be accepted as a part of the 
school system. 

4 In rural areas, efforts should be made to encourage local 
initiative and contribution in putting up school building. 

5 Temporary structures may be used whatever possible 
and improved techniques of construction may be adopted 
in putting up pucca building. 

6 In order to accelerate provision of school buildings, 
‘ construction in rural areas may be entrusted to local 

communities or villages panchayats, and in urban areas, 
Municipalities and Corporations may be utilised for the 


Educational Building Development group should be set 

un in each State within the Public Works Department 
and working in close association with the Education 


To avoid delays in the construction of government build- 

inos a separate unit of the P.W.D. should be set up for 

the extension of educational building programmes. 

66 Kothari Commission 

(5) Guidance and Counselling : Should be an integral part 
of education. 

1. Guidance at the Primary Stage : Simple measures be 
introduced at this level. (1) familiarising teachers under training 
with diagnostic testing and the problem of individual differences, 
(2) organising in-service courses for primary teachers, (3) pro- 
ducing occupational literature, (4) helping pupils and parents in 
choice of further education. 

2. Guidance at the Secondary Stage : Guidance at the 
secodary stage should, among other things, help in the indentifi- 
cation and development of the abilities and interests of adolescent 
pupils. The ultimate objective should be to introduce adequate 
guidance service in all secondary schools with a trained Coun- 
sellor in-charge of the programme. But in view of the limited 
financial and personnel resources, a short-range programme 
should be adopted for the next 20 years consisting of (1) a 
minimum guidance programme for all secondary schools through 
a visiting school counsellor for a group of ten schools, assisted by 
the school teachers in the simple guidance functions. (2) com- 
prehensive guidance programme in selected schools, one in each 
direct, to serve as models. (3) provision of necessary supervisory 
staff in the State Bureaus of Guidance. 

3. General : (i) All secondary school teachers should be 

introduced to guidance concepts through pre or in-service training. 
The training colleges should be suitably staffed for the purpose. 

(ii) Arrangements should be made for the professional 
training of guidance works by the State Bureaus of 
Guidance and training colleges. Advanced training 
should be organised at the national level. 

(iii) Ancillary programmes should include the production of 
guidance literature and materials and research into prob- 
lems of guidance in Indian situations. 

(6) Search for and Development of Talent ; The search 
for the talent must be a continuous process; pursued at all stages, 
but the secondary state is the most crucial. 

2. In adition to programmes or enrichment of advanced 
curricula, a variety of extra-mural programmes should be 
organized for the talented, such as summer schools, visits 
to places of educational interest, etc. These programmes 

Teaching Methods, Guidance and Evaluation 67 

should be extend to those pupils also whose home envir- 
onment is not conducive in study. 

3. Teachers should be oriented to the special techniques of 
dealing with the talented children, especially to the need 
for providing an atmosphere for free expression and 
creative work. 

(7) The Backward Child : Neglect of backward children 
leads to wastage of educational facilities and human resources 
and it is necessary for a developing country to reduce wastage 
to the minimum. Steps should be taken to diagnose the causes of 
under-achievement and formulate and implement remedial 
programmes within the school system, with the help of interested 
teachers and child guidance clinics, where available, and parent- 
teacher associations. 

(8) Evaluation : Evaluation is a continuous process; it 
forms an integral part of the total system of education and is 
intimately related to educational objectives. 

1. The new approach to evaluation .will attempt to improve 
the written examination so that it becomes more valid 
and reliable. 

2. Evaluation at primary stage should help pupils to imp- 
rove their achievement in the basic skills and develop- 
ment of right habits and attitudes. 

3. It would be desirable to treat classes I to IV as an 
ungarded unit to enable children to advance at their own 
place where this is not feasible, classes I and II may be 
treated as one block, divided into two groups-one for 
slow and the other for fast learners. 

4. At higher primary stage, in addition to written examina- 
tions, weightage should be given at this stage to oral tests 
as a part of internal assessment. Diagnostic, Teacher 
made tests and cumulative records should be maintained. 

5. External Examination at the End of the Primary Stage : 
Although the first national standard of attainment is 
to be set at the end of the primary stage, it is not consi- 
dered necessary or desirable to prescribe a rigid and 
uniform level of attainment through a compulsory ex- 
ternal examination. Periodic survey of the level of 
achievement of primary schools should be conducted 

68 Kothari Commission 

by school authorities through refined tests prepared by 
State Evaluation Organization. 

6. A Common External Examination for Inter-school 
Comparability : The district educational authorities may 
arrange for a common examination at the end of the 
primary stage for schools in the district, using stand- 
ardised and refined tests. This examination will have 
greater validity and reliability than school examination 
and will provide inter-school comparability of level of 

7. A certificate at the end of the primary course accom- 
panied with school record should be given to the student 
by the school. 

8. Special tests may be held for the award of scholarships 
for identifying talent. 

9. Improvement in External Examinution : External exami- 
nations should be improved by raising the technical 
competence of paper-setters, orienting question papers to 
objectives other than the acquisition of knowledge, 
improving the nature of questions, adopting scientific 
scoring procedures, mechanising the scoring of scripts 
and the processing of results. 

10. Certificate given by Board and School : The certificate 
issued by the State Board of School Education on the 
basis of the results of external examination should 
give the candidate’s performance in different subjects 
for which he has appeared. There should be no remark 
to the effect that he has passed or failed in the whole 
examination. The candidate should be permitted to 
appear again, if he so desires, for the entire examination 
or for separate subjects in order to improve his per- 

11. The student should receive a certificate from the school 
also giving the record of his internal assessment as con- 
tained in his cumulative record card and this should be 
attached to that given by the Board. 

12. Establishment of Experimental Schools : Experimental 
schools should be established and they should be permit- 
ted to frame their own curricula, prescribe their ovn 

learning meinous, ^juiaance ana evaluation oy 

text books and conduct tbeir educational activities 
without external restrictions. 

13. Method of Internal Assessment : Internal assessment 
by schools should be comprehensive and evaluate all 
aspects of the student growth including those not 
measured by the external examinations. It should be 
descriptive as well as qualified. Written examinations 
conducted by the schools should be improved and 
teachers trained appropriately. The internal assessment 
should be shown separately. 

14. Higher Secondary Examination : During the transitional 
period higher secondary students will have to appear 
for two successive external examination- — at the end of 
classes X & XT within one year. Where however the 
courses in classes IX to XI are integrated the exami- 
nation at the end of classss need not be insisted upon. 


The Commission has rightly emphasised on teaching methods, 
guidance and evaluation for the qualitative improvement. The 
following causes are responsible for the progress. 

(i) The weakness of the average teacher. 

(ii) The failure to develop proper educational research on 
teaching methods. 

(iii) The rigidity of the existing educational system. 

(iv) The failure of the administrative machinery to bring 
about a diffusion of new and dynamic methods of 

The average teacher wants security rather than the oppor- 
tunity for creativity. They should be encouraged and helped 
beyond the departmental prescription. The diffusion of new 
methods, quality of text books, state production of text books 
etc. are necessary. 

Teaching aids and their uses should be known to the teachers 

(i) The training of teachers in the use and preparation of simple 
and improvised teaching aids (ii) The use of the school workshop 

(ii) Manufacturing of simple equipment and (iv) Sharing the 
more costly equipment in common by schools in a given neigh- 

The new concept of evaluation should be the integral part 

70 Kothari Commission ’ 

of the total system of education and is intimately related to 
educational objectives. Improvement in written examination 
should be done on the lines of external examination. 

The Commission has suggested many new things to assess the 
process of education of a child. It suggests that the public exami- 
nation should not be a compulsory measure at any level . or stage 
of school education. By releasing the teacher and the pupil exa- 
minations, the Commission will earn the gratitude of millions of 
young people. The plebbeins may now rejoice for their day of 
deliverance is at hand.^ 

(1) A Closer Book : The Commission visualizes the problem 
of evaluation which is based on the methods of teaching and on 
objectives which a nation seeks. As there should be no public 
examination at any stage of school education as compulsory 
measure, the number of students receiving education would go 
up considerably. This will lead to eradicate wastage and 

(2) Emphasis on Internal Assessment : Realising the adverse 
effect of external examinations, the Commission has suggested 
that Internal Assessment by schools should be comprehensive 
and evaluate all aspects of students growth including those noi 
measured by the external examination. This assessment should 
be shown separately. It will create a meaningful and effective 

(3) Why Experimental School ? The experimental schools 
suggested by the Commission may function directly under the 
Board of Secondary Education. These schools will prove useful 
in framing new curricula and teaching devices. 

(4) Purpose of Internal Assessment : We have just discussed 
the importance of internal assessment. The assessment will 
achieve these objectives — (I) Knowledge of terms, facts, principles 
and process in content area. (2) Ability to apply knowledge in 
a new situation. (3) Attitudes and interests related to content 
area. (4) Skills in content areas. 

(5) Programme of Action : Most of the teachers cannot inden- 

tify the specific objectives realized by them during their teaching. 
Therefore, the commission recommends them to administer 
various tests so that they may come in contact with the subject- 

1. Mitra K. Sahib — ‘The Education Commission and Evaluation.’ NIO 
Journal Vol. No- 1 1 ; Nov. 1966, page 36. 

Teaching Methods, Guidance and Evaluation 


(6) Guidance at Various Level : Introducing guidance pro- 
gramme at different levels, it is hoped, will bear better results in 
searching talents. The Commission recommends that there should 
be at least one Counsellor for every institution in an organised 

(7) Elasticity, Dynamisim and Diffusal ; The Commission 
has emphasized the poinUthat educational administration can 
encourage and hasten the diffusion of the new teaching methods 
by — (1) combining permissivenes with persuation. (2) employing 
new methods in stages according to the ability of schools. (3) 
giving necessary in-service training to teachers. (4) providing 
adequate guidance material which will be constantly revised and 

(8) Improvement of External Examination : The Commission 
has recommended the following steps — (1) Raising the technical 
competence of paper setters. (2) Orienting the question papers 
to objectives other than aquisition of knowledge. (3) Improving 
the nature of questions. (4) Adopting scientific scoring proce- 
dures. (5) Mechanising the scoring of script and processing of 

The Commission has played an important role in reforming 
the various techniques of teaching, improving skills of students 
through guidance and counselling, proper evaluation of work and 
the conduct of the student through external and internal exami- 

Education : Adminis- 
tration 8c Supervision 

The Commission has suggested a national policy for the 
locale of new schools to avoid wastage and duplication. The 
Commission has investigated the causes of ill-administration and 
ineffective supervision and suggested new ways to develop 
effective administrative agency and supervisory staff. The Com- 
mission has worked also on the setting up of a national pattern 
of common school system and National Board of School Edu- 


(1) The Common School of Public Education ; This system 
of Public Education would include all government, local authority 
and added schools. Only two types of schools (i) Independent and 
(ii) Unrecognized will remain out of its scope. 

1. The objective of educational policy should be to evolve, 
over the next 20 years, a common school system of 
public education which would cover all parts of the coun- 
try, provide equality of access to all children and will 
maintain such a standard that an average parent will not 
feel the need to send the child to an independent or 
unrecognized school. 

Following steps should be taken— (i) The existing discrimi- 
nation between teachers working under different managements 
should be done away with, (ii) Tuition fees should be abolished 
in a phased programme at primary and lower secondary stage by 
the end of 4th and 5th plans respectively, (iii) The existing 
discrimination between schools under different management 
should be reduce to minimum and all schools should be provided 
with the minimum essential conditions necessary for good edu- 
cation. (iv) The neighbourhood school plan should be adopted 
at the lower primary stage to eliminate differences between 
schools for the privileged and the under-privileged. 

School Education : Administration and Supervision 

(A) Government and local Authority Schools— Ths teachers 
of Government and Local Authority schools do not have 
much'i'Sincerity, so the following measures may be 
adopted ; (i) A school committee with local represen- 
tation should look-after the management of every govern- 
ment and authority school or a group of school in an 
area. Each committee will operate its own school fund 
for the provision of service in schools, (ii) Rational 
Transfer policy should be formulated so that teachers 
are not transferred too often, (iii) Greater freedom 
should be given to these schools. 

{B) Private Schools — It is the responsibility of the Govern- 
ment to see that private aided institutions are satis- 
factorily managed through adequate support. Those that 
are not so managed should be taken over by the 
government or eliminated. With the abolition of tuition 
fees, most of the private schools will come within the 
common school system and should be assisted to 
strengthen their management in the following ways : (i) 
Each private school should have a managing committee 
consisting of representives of the management, the Edu- 
cation Department and teachers, (ii) Grant-in-aid should 
be improved on the basis indicated in the Report. Grant- 
in-aid Code should be amended, (iii) Good private 
schools which abolish tuition fees under the common 
school system should be helped to maintain existing 
standards and grant-in-aid should be adjusted on the 
basis of quality schools. 

(C) The Neighbourhood School — Under this concept all the 
children should attend the school in the locality, (i) 
During the first 10 years, all primary schools should be 
improved to the minimum level and about 10% schools 
should be raised to a higher standard, (ii) This system 
should be introduced where public opinion is in favour 
of it. (iii) 90% scholarships should be given at higher 
level to those students who received their education 
under Public System. 

(2) A Nation-wide Programme of School Improvement — (1) 
lach institution should be treated as a unit by itself and helped 
0 grow at its own individual pace. Physical facilities should be 

74 Kothari Commissjori 

improved through the co-operation of local community. (2) 
Evaluation criteria for schools should be worked out by each 
State and may be used by schools for selfrevaluation and by ins- 
pecting officers for their annual triennial inspections. 

(2) Supervision ; Reorganization of the State Development : 
(1) State Education Department will be the principal agency 
to deal with educational matters and will, therefore, be respon- 
sible for— (i) the development and implementation of a pro- 
gramme of school improvement, (ii) the prescription and enforce- 
ment of standards, (ii) the training and supply of teachers, 
(iv) inspection and supervision, (v) the establishment and main- 
tenance of a State Evaluation Organisation, (vi) the maintenance 
of quality institutions and provision of extension services, (vii) 
the establishment and maintenance of a State Institute of Edu- 
cation. (viii) the co-ordination and eventual asumption of 
responsibility for vocational and technical education at the school 

(3) Strengthening of Departmental Organisation at District 
level— (i) the District Education Officer should be given adequate 
status by including the post in the proposed Indian Educational 
Service, (ii) adequate authority should be delegated to the 
district level, (iii) scales of pay and qualifications of inspectoral 
scaff at the district level should be upgraded, (iv) the strength of 
the district staff should be increased with the addition of 
‘specialists’ and statistical cell, (v) a fair proportion of the district 
staff should consist of women officers in order to encourage girls’ 

(4) Headmasters should be selected carefully and specially 
trained. They should be vested with necessary authority and 

(5) Role of the School Complex in New Supervision— (1) The 
District Education Officer will be in touch with each school 
complex and as far as possible, deal with it as one unit. The 
complex itself will perform certain delegated tasks and deal 
with the individual schools within it. Adequate powers and 
responsibilities should be delegated to the complex so that better 
methods of teaching and evaluation are made possible, facilities 
are shared, inservice training programmes are facilitated and 
new programmes tried out. (2) The scheme should be first in- 
troduced in a few selected districts in each state as a pilot project 

School Education : Administration and Supervision 75 

before being implemented on a large scale. (3) The school 
complex should not only encourage experimentation en-bloc but 
also foster individual experimentation within the unit. 

(6) The New Supervision — (1) Administration should be 
separated from supervision, the District School Board dealing 
with the former and the district Education Officer with the latter. 
But the two should function in close collaboration. (2) Recogni- 
tion should not be a matter of course but should be continuously 
earned by every school, irrespective of its management. (3) Every 
school should have two types of inspections, an annual one by the 
officers of the District school Board for primary schools and by 
Officers of the State Education Departments for the secondary 
schools; and a triennial or quinquennial inspection organised by 
the District Education Officer for the primary schools and by the 
State Board of School Education for the secondary schools. 
(4) The provision of guidance and extension services to schools is 
one of the major responsibilities of the new supervision. (5) In- 
service training should be provided to all supervisory and ad- 
ministrative officers by SIE^ and NSCEA^. 

(7) State Institute of Education — An academic wing will 
have to be developed in the State Institute of Education to look 
after the in-service training of departmental officers improvement 
of teacher education, curricula and text books, guidance, eva- 
luation and research and evaluation of programmes. 

(8) State and National Boards of Education — Adequate 
machinery should be set-up at the State and National level. 

1. Standard should be defined at the end of the higher 
primary and lower secondary stages and later on, at the 
end of the higher secondary stage also when it covers a 
period of two years. 

2. SEO® and SBSE* will assist and defining measuring and 
periodically revising these standards. 

3. The National Board of School Education will coordinate 
standards at the national level. 

(9) State Evaluation Organisation : (1) SEO should be set 
up in each State as an independent institution, preferably auto- 

1. state Institute of Education. 

2. National Staff College for Educational Administration. 

3. State Evaluation Organisation. 

4. State Board of School Education. 

76 Khothari Commission 

nomous, and its services should be available to all concerned. 
(2) The SEO will assist the District Education OtEcers in improv- 
ing evaluation practices in Schools, advise the State Education 
Deparments on curricula geared to expected standards, help pre- 
paration of text-books and other materials and measure accom- 
plished standards for time to time. (3) An Advisory Committee 
presided over by the Chairman of State Board of School Educa- 
tion will assist the SEO. 

(10) State Boards of School Education . SBSE should be 
established and it should take over the functioning and responsi- 
bilities of the existing Boards. The Boards function as an integral 
part of the Department, 

1. The Board will be in-charge of the entire school stage in 
respect of curricula. Recognition of primary schools 
will be given by DEO^ and of secondary schools by the 
Department SBSE. 

2. Board will conduct the external examination at the end 
of the year and other examination in general education. 

3. In the long ran, it would be desirable to bring ail school 
education— general and vocational-within the scope of a 
single organisation like SBSE. 

4. A special committee of the Board should be established 
to look after the higher secondary stage. Half of its 
members should represent the schoo/s and the other half, 
the institutions. 

5. The time taken for the declaration of examination result 
should be minimised by — (i) mechanising the procedures, 
(h) setting up sub-boards to cover one or more districts 
in order to handle smaller number of candidates, 

(11) Role of the Centre ; (1) A National Board of School 

Education should be established in the Ministry of Education to 
advise the Govt, of India on alt matters relating to school educa- 
tion. It will also advise and assist State Education Departments 
in curricular reforms and in improving standards. (2) A large 
programme should be developed in the Centrally Sponsored sector 
for the development of school education particularly in respect of 
the establishment of vocational institutions, developing quality 
institutions and providing scholarships. (3) The Central Board 
of Secondary Education should conduct some high standard exa- 

I. District Education Officer. 

School Education : Administration and Supervision 77 

minations individual school subjects at two levels — classes X and 
XII — in consulation with National Board of School Education. 

(12) Unrecognized School : It may be desirable to introduce 
legislation for the compulsory registration of all educational insti- 
tutions and it should be made an offence to run an unregistered 
intstitution. Power should also be vested in the State Govern- 
ment to remove any educational institution from the register if 
stipulated conditions are not fulfilled. 


Mr. M. C. Chagla deserves the credit of appointing the Edu- 
cation Commission. He is of the opinion — “If we want to 
improve the standard of university education, we have to improve 
secondary education and this can be done only by trained 
teachers. Secondary education was in most vital sector of the 
entire scheme of education and it was essential that its quality 
should be improved. Our examination system was defective as 
the students abilities and learning were not tested properly. We 
have to adopt a revolutionary out-look in examination and evolve 
new systems to assess the merits of students.”^ Therefore, the 
Commission rationalised each and every thing regarding the dec- 
line of standard. 

(1) Centre-State Policy Appreciated^ ; We have a federal 
system of government which provides for a balance between the 
need for national unity and the need for preserving the cultural 
diversity found in various subnational groups. There have been 
advocates of complete centralisation in respect of education and 
there have been advocates of State autonomy. The Education 
Commission has taken both points of view into considerarion and 
recommended a policy under which it is absolutely necessary and 
leave a large amount of autonomy to States in various fields. Its 
recommendation that a National Board of School Education 
should be set up and that the government at the Centre should 
from time to time statements in national educational policy for 
the guidance of State government and local authorities go a long 
way to fulfil this need. 

(2) Scheme of Neighbourhood Schools® : As far as neighb- 

j j,! c. Chagla— Hindustan Tii^ Feb. 6, 1967. 

2. Educational India— July, 1966. 

3. Times of India— July]5, 1966. 

78 Kothari Commission 

ourhood schools are concerned they wiJJ undoubtedly help to 
lower the barrier between the classes. But unless the education 
they provide, is of a far higher standard than is imported in the 
average school to day, the more well-to-do parents will be reluc- 
tant to send their children to these schools. Reservation of most 
of the scholarships at the Universty for children who attend these 
schools will in any case be a poor sanction. Scholarships hold 
little attraction for those who can afford to pay heavy tuition fees 
charged by most public schools. This is not to dismiss the idea of 
neighbour-hood schools as quixotic. It is rather to emphasize that 
the scheme needs to be examined more closely to find out whether 
the Government has the means to set up schools of the requisite 
standard in sufficient number to make an impact on the prevailing 
system in the next decade or two. 

(3) The Private School or Education Shops : The Commis- 
sion gave an appropriate and valid suggestion to maintain the 
standard of education by private schools or coaching shops. These 
shops should be registered by the Government. But one thing 
comes out of it — What would be the future of these shops and so 
called educational institutes after the registration ? The only way 
out is that the private candidates should not be allowed in public 
examinations. If this is done, only then the standard may be 

(4) Separate Units : The Commission has suggested the 
establishment of new institutions, like NBSE, SBE, etc. Separate 
unit for training the staff employed for administration should be 

The idea of School Complex or the manner in which a high 
school, about three or four higher primary schools and 10 to 20 
lower primary schools in the neighbourhood would be integrally 
linked together. These complex may be used as a unit for the 
introduction of better methods of evaluation and for regulating 
the promotion of children from class to class or from one level of 
school to another. 

These are fine suggestions made by the Commission which 
are to be apted in practice. 

Higher Education : Objectives 
and Improvement 

The Commission thought over significant problems which 
effect the objectives and improvement of higher education. We 
have before as the main problems of the objectives, improvement 
of aflSliated colleges, teaching and evaluation, medium of instruc- 
tion, student unions and student discipline. 

The Commission analysed the main problems and suggested 
their solution. It also stressed the ways along which we can go 
ahead and approach our main goal during the proposed time; 
our main consideration is that the whole of university life should 
be taught as one and polarisation between teachers, students and 
administration should be avoided. 


(1) Objectives of Universities ; (I) In broad terms, the 
functions of the universities in the modern world may be said to 
be the following : — (i) to seek and cultivate new knowledge to 
engage ourselves vigorously and fearlessly in the pursuit of truth, 
and to interpret old knowledge and belief in the" light of new 
needs and discoveries, (ii) to provide right sort of leadership in 
all walks of life; to identify gifted youth and help them to develop 
their potential to the full by cultivating physical fitness, develop- 
ing of powers of mind and cultivating right interests, attitudes, 
moral and intellectual values, (iii) to provide the society with 
competent men and women trained in agriculture, arts, medicine, 
science and technology and various other professions, (iv) to 
strive to promote equality and social justice and to reduce social 
and cultural differences through diffusion of education, (v) to 
foster in the teachers and students and through them in society 
generally the attitudes and values needed for developing the ‘good 
life’ in individual and society. 

(2) Indian universities will have to shoulder some special 
responsibilities in the present state of our social and educational 
development. For instance — (i) they must learn to serve as the 

80 Kothari Commission 

conscience of the nation, (ii) they should develop the programme 
of adult education, (iiij they should assist the schools in their 
attempts at qualitative self improvement, (iv) they should shake 
off the heavy load of early tradition, (v) they should create the 
centre of gravity of Indian academic life within the country itself. 

(3) The following three programmes should be followed on 
the next 20 years — (i) a radical improvement in the quality and 
standards of higher education and research, (ii) expansion of 
higher education to meet the manpower needs of national develop* 
ment and, to some extent, the rising social ambitions and expect- 
ations of the people, (iii) improvement of University organisation 
and administration. 

(2) Major Universites ; The UGC should select, as soon as 
possible, from amongst the existing university, about six uni- 
versities Cino'luding one of the I.I.T’S^ and one Agriculture 
University) for development as major universities. The pro- 
gramme should begin in 1966-67. 

1 . Each major university should be assigned a number of 
scholarships for under-graduate and post-graduate 

2. Each department of faculty of a major university should 
have a specially appointed Personnel Advisory Com- 
mittee which should work in close collaboration with 
appointing authorities of the University. 

3. It is necessary to establish ‘cluster’ of advanced centres 
in the major universities. About fifty such centres should 
be established including some in modern Indian langu- 
ages during the next five to ten years. The selection of a 
centre of advanced study should be continually earner 
and deserved. 

4. The recurring and eapital costs of the major universitiei 
should be met by the UGC. 

(3) Improvement of Other Universities : (1) Every effori 
should be made to induce talented students from the major 
universities to join the teaching profession. (2) The UGC should 
sponsor a scheme for instituting a number of fellowships at three 
levels — Lecturers, Readers and Professors. (3) The universities 
and afliliated colleges should be encouraged to preselect their 
new teachers and attach them to the major universities for a 
specific period. (4) Invitations may be given to promising scholars 

1, Indian Institute of Technology. 

Higher Education ; Objectives and Improvement 81 

and scientists from other universities or affiliated colleges to do 
research and to conduct seminars. 

(4) Development of Affiliated Colleges : (1) Affiliated 
Colleges should be classified in terms of the level of their perfor- 
mance and assistance should be related to such classification. 
(2) Where there is an outstanding college (or a small ‘cluster’ 
of very good colleges) within a large university which has shown 
the capacity to improve itself markedly consideration should be 
given to granting it an ‘autonomous’ status, 

(5) Improvement of Teaching and Evaluation : The number 
of formal classroom and laboratory hours should be reduced. 
The remaining time should be alloted for guiding the students. 
(2) Every effort should be made to build up good libraries in 
universities and colleges. (3) It is most important to emphasize 
original thinking in the study of all subjects and to discourage 
memorizing. There should be a possibility of undergraduates 
coming into occasional contact with senior and outstanding 
teachers particularly when a new subject has to be introduced 
for the first time. (4) The content and quality of lectures in 
general need be considerably improved. (5) No teacher should be 
away from his institution during ‘term time’ for more than seven 
days in a year. (5) All new appointments should be made during 
vacation time so that teachers join their duties at the beginning 
of the academic year. No teacher should be permitted to leave 
the institution to take up another appointment during the term- 
time. (7) There is great need for experimentation, especially in 
two important areas— (i) handling large number of students 
without increase in expenditure, (ii) a certain amount of teaching 
done by research students and by postgraduate students after 
their first year. (9) The problem of teaching methods in higher 
education has been relatively neglected. It would be examined 
by UGC through a special committee appointed for the purpose. 
(10) In all teaching universities external examinations should be 
replaced by a system of internal assessment supplementing the 
external examination ( 11 ) The UGC should set up a Central 
Examination Reform Unit to work in collaboration with the 
universities. (12) University teachers should be re-oriented to 
adopt the new and improved techniques of education through a 
large programme of seminars, discussions or workshops. (13) 
Early measures should be taken to abolish payment of remuner- 

82 Kothari Commission 

ation of examiners. As a first step, the total number of answer- 
books to be examined by any teacher during a year should not 
exceed 500. 

(6) Medium of Education ; (1) The regional language should 
be adopted as media of education at the University stage in a 
phased programme spread over ten years. (2) At under-graduate 
level, the regional language and at post-graduate level, English 
should be the medium of instruction, (3) Teachers should be 
bilingual (knowing the regional language and English). (4) The 
maintenance of colleges, teaching through the medium of Hindi 
in the non-Hindi areas or of Urdu in any part of the country 
where there is a reasonable number of Urdu-speaking student 
should be permitted and encouraged. (5) Centres of advanced 
study should be established for the development of all modern 
Indian language including Urdu. (6) No language should be made 
compulsory subject of study at the University stage. (7) Adequate 
facilities should be provided in universities and colleges for study 
of English. It would be an advantage to teach English as a part 
of the elective subject course in the first year of the degree course. 
(8) The teaching of important library languages other than 
English should be stressed in particular the study of Russian on 
a large scale. 

(7) Students Services : (1) All institutions of higher 
education should organise orientation programmes for new 
students in the beginning of the academic year to faciliate adjust- 
ment. (2) Steps should be taken to organize, on a high priority 
basis, adequate health services in universities and colleges. 0) 
Hostel accomodation should be provided for about 25% of the 
enrolment at the undergraduate and post-graduate level. (4) Day- 
study centres should be provided for about 25% of the non-resi- 
dent with low-cost cafefarias. (5) There should be at least one 
Counsellor for every thousand students. (6) It is necessary to 
develop a rich and varied programme of co-curricular activities 
for students. (7) There should be a full time Dean of Student 
Welfare for the administration of welfare services. 

(8) Student Unions : (I) Each university should decide bow 
its students union will function. An experimentation in this 
matter should be welcome. (2) Membership of the Students 
Union should be automatic, but every student should be expected 
to choose at least one activity organised in the union. (3) The 

Higher Education ; Objectives and Improvement 83 

office-bears should be elected indirectly by the different student 
societies in the university, those who spend two or more years in 
the same class being disqualified for the purpose. (4) Joint 
Commission of teachers and students should be established and 
' fully utilised to ascertain and redress the genuine difficulties of 
students. (5) The UGC should take initiative in covering and 
financially supporting an annual conference of representative of 
the Students Unions in Universities and Colleges. 

(9) Student Discipline : (I) Education should enable young- 
men and women to learn and practice civilized forms of behavi- 
our and to commit themselves to special values of significance 
(2) The responsibility for indiscipline is multi-lateral and no 
effective solution is possible unless each agency— student, parents 
teachers, state government and political parties, perform its’ 
own duty. (3) Ernest efforts should be made to remove the educa- 
tional deficiencies that contribute to student unrest and set up an 
adequate consultative and administrative machinery to prevent 
the occurrence of acts of indiscipline. (4) The incentative to 
positive discipline have to come from opportunities which the 
institution presents to the intellectual and social demands it makes 
of the students. A better standard of student service is also 
necessary. (5) The whole university life should be treated as one 
and polarization betweeen teachers, students and administration 
should be avoided. 


The Education Commission took too much interest in higher 
education. The Commission covered almost all the areas for 
improvement. It has suggested many new things which our 
planners are thinking to implement. 

(1) For New Universities The metropolitan centres of 
Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras should have two universities 
each by the end of the Fourth Plan. The universities in each city 
should supplement each other’s activities. It suggests that the 
affairs of Calcutta University should be examined to find a remed 
for the difficulties created by the rapid fall in undergraduates 

Keral’s plea for an additional university is justifiables the 
Commission says, and adds that the proposal for a university for 
the hill areas of the north eastern region should be supported by 
a major measure for spearheading economic and social develop. 

1, Hindustan Times— dated April 11, 196$. 1 

84 Kothari Commission 

ment of the area. Laying down a general criterion, the Commission 
notes that a new university should be justified only if It leads to a 
substantial improvement in standards, output and level of research 
and can be justified only when competent men and adequate 
physical facilities are available. Universities, the Commission 
recommends, should join together at the regional and national 
levels in co-operative programmes and supplement their available 
facilities, especially in research. 

On admissions, the Commission says that the conditions of 
eligibility should be elastic enough to permit the admission of all 
promising students. While the use of examination marks as major 
basis for admissions may continue until the adoption of 
better selection methods, their arbitrariness of lack of reliability 
should be compensated by making due allowance for the socio- 
economic handi-caps of students. Final selection should take into 
consideration other factors, such as the school record and profi- 
ciency of the student in fields not tested in an examination. 

(2) Studenfs-Indiscipline : The Commission did not neglect 
the problem of student-unrest. Many educationists have analysed 
the problem in their own way. M. C. Setatvad expressed his view 
— “Political leaders of all parties including the ruling party have 
not hesitated to use the youth for the purpose of propaganda in 
order to spread their doctrines. This has resulted in creating 
parties and factions in the university campus which in some ways 
correspond to the political parties outside.” 

(3) Dean of Student Welfare : The working group on student 
welfare^ suggested in every university there should be a Dean of 
Student Welfare. The working group welcomed the Education 
Commission’s recommendation to set up a Planning and Develop- 
ment Unit in the universities. The working group felt that the 
Dean of Student-Welfare would be the link between the students 
and the University authorities to solve various problems. 

(4) Recommendation by U. G. C. on Student-Unrest^ • The 
Conference requested by the University Grants Commission to 
request the Government to place adequate funds at the disposal 
of the Commission in order that schemes in universities 

1. Organised by Inter University Board, 

2. D. O. Letter No. F. 1-106 (CDN) dated 25 Oct. 1966. ‘Recom- 
mendations of the U. G. C. Committee on Student Unrest, Dis- 
cipline and Welfare.' 

Higher Education : Objectives and Improvement 85 

colleges which promote the welfare of students and assist in the 
adoption of measure necessary to fulfil their genuine needs are 
met. High priority should be given to measure which would 
impart a greater sense of national purpose and service. In this 
context serious attention should be given to the introduction of 
more ‘field work’ into the curriculum, social service and work 
experience so that education is more intimately linked with life 
and the realities of conditions and the problems of the country. 

The Conference emphasised the need for universities to 
maintain the highest integrity in matters of appointments, elec- 
tions, examinations, affiliations, etc. so as to create confidence 
in teachers, students and the public. Admissions should be 
based solely on merit and considerations of caste, region, etc ; 
should not be allowed to come in. The conference recommended 
that in academic matters such as admissions add appointments 
were should be no outside interference. 

The Conference considered some urgent measure for bringing 
about improvement in the atmosphere of educational institutions. 
In particular it recommended the following : 

1. Appointment of Deans of Student Welfare in Universities 
and colleges were they do not exist and strengthening of 
Dean’s Organisation in other educational centres pro- 
vision of counselling and guidance facilities, strengthen- 
ing of information and employment bureaus and 
institution of effective orientation programmes. 

2. Expansion of library facilities and provision of reading 
seats and day-study centres, increases in hostel, medical 
and recreational facilities for students, financial aid to 
needy students and other measures to ensure better living 
and working conditions for students and better employ- 
ment of their leisure hours 

3. Promotion by every possible means of personal contact 
between teachers and students. This is essential to the 
entire process of good education. 

4. Strengthening of proctorial arrangements of the univer- 
sity with the participation of students also in the mainte- 
nance of peaceful conditions in the Campus. 

The Conference feels that it is important to associate student 
representatives in discussions relating to student welfare, discipline 
and related subjects. In this connection, the conference welcomes 

Kothari Commission 

the recommendations of the education Commission that the Uni- 
versity Grants Commission should convene conferences of stu- 
dents representative, and it recommends to the U G.C. that early 
action be taken in this matter. The conference appealed to all 
political parties to desist from using students for their own 
political ends and objectives. 

The Commission rightly stated — “To realize these ambitions 
objectives is no easy task. To do so in all our universities 
would need an order of investment in physical and monetary 
terms which is now beyond our reach and a large number of 
highly qualified and dedicated teachers who are not available. 
What is necessary, therefore, is a well-conceived and comprehen- 
sive plan spread over the next twenty years and its vigorous and 
sustained implementation.” 

Higher Education : Enrolment 

and Programme 

The Commission gives its views on the enrolment and 
programme for the development of higher education. There are 
so many problems in the field of higher education on which 
practical suggestions have given by the Commission. We all feel 
that the present defective system of education is a curse on our 
country’s fate. This curse should be changed into boon. 
For this, the Commission has suggested the following recom- 


(1) Expansion of Facilities— The expansion of facilities in 
higher education should be planned broadly in relation to man- 
power needs and employment opportunities. On the basis of the 
present trends, it appears that the enrolment in undergraduate 
and postgraduate courses will have to be increased from about one 
million in 1965-66 to 4 million in 1985-86. Facilities in pro- 
fessional courses such as agriculture, engineering or medicine and 
those at the postgraduate stage will have to be specially expanded, 

(2) Selective Admission— (1) Three measures would have 
to be adopted from this point of view — (i) the determination of 
the number of places available in an institution in relation to 
teachers and facilities available to ensure that standards are 
maintained at an adequate level, (ii) prescription of eligibility by 
the universit'es. (iii) selection by the institution concerned of 
the best students from amongst those who are eligible and seek 
admission (2) While the use of examination marks as a major 
basis for admission may continue until better selection methods 
are devised their arbitrariness or lack of reliability should be 
compensated, to the extent possible, by making due allowance 
for the socio-economic handicaps of studendts so as to relate 
selection more directly to innate talent. (3) Each university 
should constitute a Board of University Admissions to advise the 
university about all matters relating to admissions. (4) The UGC 

88 Kothari Commission 

should set up a Central Testing Organization for the develop- 
ment of appropriate selection procedures for different courses of 
higher education. 

(3) Part-Time Education — Opportunities for part-time edu- 
cation (Correspondence courses, Evening colleges) should be 
extended widely and should include courses in Science and Tech- 
nology also. By 1986 about one third of the enrolment in higher 
education should be provided through a system of correspondence 
courses and evening colleges. 

(4) College-Size — (1) A college should normally have a 
minimum enorlment of 500 and it would be preferable to raised 
to 1,000 or more in as many colleges as possible. (2) The UGC 
should undertake a study of the planning of the location of 
colleges with special reference to small colleges. (3) In granting 
affiliation to colleges, the universities should emphasize the ex- 
pansion of existing colleges, rather than establishing new ones. 
(4) In granting affiliation to a new college, care should be taken 
to see that its location is so planned that it does not interfere 
with the proper growth of an already existing institution. 

(5) Post-graduate Education and Research — Post-graduate 
education and research work should ordinarily by organised m 
the universities or in ‘university centres’ where a good programme 
can be developed co-operatively by a group of local colleges. 
For this — (i) adequate staff (ii) vigorous test of admission, and 
(iii) adequate scholarships should be managed. - 

(6) Education of Women — (1) At present the proportion of 
women students to men students in higher education is 1 •' 4. This 
should be increased to about I : 3 to meet the requirements for 
educated women in different fields. For this purpose, a pro- 
gramme of scholarship and provision of suitable but economical 
hostel accomodations should be developed. (2) At the under- 
graduate stage, separate colleges for women may be established 
if there is a local demand. At the post-graduate level, however, 
there is no justification for separate institutions. (3) Wornen 
students should have free access to courses in arts, humanities, 
sciences and technology. Courses in home-science, nursing edu- 
cation and social work need to be developed as these have 
attraction for a large proportion of girls. Facilities for advanced 
training in business administration and management should also 
be provided. (4) Research units should be set up in one or two 
universities to deal specially with women education. 

Higher Education : Enrolment and Programme 89 

(7) New Universities — (I) The metropolitan cities of Bombay, 
Calcutta, Delhi and Madras should have two universities each 
which would supplement to some extent the work of each 
other. The demand from Kerala, Orissa and North Eastern 
Region for new universities is also justifiable. (2) In establishing 
new universities, the following principles should be kept in view, 
(i) It should lead to a substantial improvement in standards, in 
out put and level of research, (ii) No new university should be 
started unless the agreement of the UGC is obtained and ade- 
quate provision of funds is made, (iii) A good university 
organisation would be one in which a university has a strong 
care of teaching department combined with 30 affiliated colleges 
in close proximity, (iv) A new university should not ordinarily 
be established in a place where a university centre has not been 
in operation for some time, (v) A time of two or three years 
should be allowed to elapse between the appointment of the 
first Vice-Chancellor and the direct commencement of the Uni- 
versity’s work, the Vice-Chancellor being assisted by a planning 
Board during the period, (vi) Larger resources should be placed 
at the disposal of the UGC. 

(8) Calcutta University— -The State Government in consultation 
with UGC and the Government of India may have the affairs of 
the University of Calcutta examined with a view to finding a way 
out of the difficulties created by a rapidly increasing under- 
graduate population. 

(9) Inter-University Collaboration — It should be the special 
responsibility of the UGC to promote collaborative and co- 
operative programmes which cut across state, regional or lin- 
guistic frontiers. 

(10) Reorganisation of Courses — (I) The combination of sub- 
ject permissible for the first degree should also be more elastic 
than at present, both in arts and sciences. (2) There should be 
general, special and honours courses at undergraduate stage. 
(3) It is urgent need to introduce flexbility and innovation 
in the organisation of the courses for the Master’s degree. (4) 
The duration of Ph.D. course should be two to three years. 
During the first year of the Ph.D. course students should attend 
lectures and tutorials of an advance nature to overcome inade- 
quacy of preparation at the Master’s degree stage. (5) Students 
for the Ph.D. Courses should be carefully selected. (6) The pro- 

§0 iCotiiari Commission 

cedure for evaluation of the Ph.D. degree should be improved. 
(7) A study of second world language should be obligatory for 
all Ph.D. students and compulsory for Master’ degree in certain 
subjects. (8) It would be desirable to institute the degree of 
Doctor of Science as the highest award given on the basis of 
recognized research work. (9) Special elforts stould be made to 
promote interdisciplinary studies in universities which have ade- 
quately staffed departments in related subjects. 

(11) The Social Science : The social sciences should be 
given a significant position in the universities and research insti- 
tutions. From this point of view — (!) There should be an 
adequate provision of scholarships in social science courses. (2) 
The choice of subjects should be elastic and it should be possible 
for students to combine study of a social science with any group 
of subjects. (3) The financial assistance available to universities 
for the development of social sciences should be considerably 
increased. (4) High level schools or centres of Advance Study 
for allied groups of social sciences should be developed in a 
number of universities. 

(12) Area Studies ; It should be our endeavour to develop 
a significant and effective programme of area studies in a few 
selected universities and institutions. Such a programme would 
require intensive courses in the language of the areas concerned 
and the introduction of optional groups of papers in certain social 
science subject having reference to the different areas selected 
for intensive study. 

(13) Study of Humanities : To redress the balance, our 
scholars should strive to make significant contributions to the 
sum-total of human knowledge and experience in the field of 
social and pedagogical sciences and humanistic studies, where 
our old traditions and the present challenges posed by social 
development present unique opportunities for creative work. 

(14) Educational Research : Urgent steps have to be taken 
to develop educational research and relate it effectively to the 
formulation of educational policies and improvement of 

1. A documentation centre and national clearing house m 
educational research should be developed at the NCERT. 

2. Educational research has to be developed in terms and 
in inter-disciplinary fields. It will be the special rcspon- 

Higher Education : Enroiment and Programme 91 

sibility of Schools of Education to develop educational 
research in a big way in collaboration with other depart- 

3. It is desirable to set up a National Academy of Educa- 
tion consisting of eminent educationists, broadly on the 
lines of the National Institute of Science, to promote 
educational thought and research. This should essentially 
be a non-official, professional body. 

4. An Education Research Council should be set up in the 
Ministry of Education for the promotion of Research. 

5. There is an urgent need to provide good specialized train- 
ing for research work and services for data-processing, 
statistical analysis and consulatidn. 

6. It would be the responsibility of the NCERT and State 
Institute of Education to bridge the wide gap between 
the educational research and current research and current 
school practices. A similar role will have to be played 
by the UGC in the field of Higher education. 

7. The total expenditure on educational research has to be 
increased considerably, the goal being to devote about 
one per cent of State expenditure on education. 


The Commission’s views on the expansion and reorganisation 
of higher education are welcomed by the great educationists. In 
fact our higher education does not produce good results for the 
youth, particularly on the Arts’ side. The whole period of higher 
education is like a waiting-shed under which a youth wants to 
pass his time till he gets employment. 

The Commission, therefore, has recommended part-time edu- 
cation in the form of evening colleges and correspondence courses. 
But the status of the Evening Colleges and Correspondence 
Courses is not recognized by the educational world. According to 
a journalist, ‘The evening colleges have now been there for so 
many years. But the University authorities have yet to decide 
to accept them as regular members of the family. The evening 
colleges are not allowed to start any science classes or introduce 
Honours. These colleges cater to the employment section of 
our population which is keen to improve academic qualifications 
for securing a better place in life. The result of the evening 

9^ Kothari Com mission 

college standards are in no way inferior to those of the day 

Some scholars have stressed these point on the recommenda- 
tions of Education Commission, 

1. Social Science Research — The Committee on Social 
Science Research headed by Dr. V. K. R, V. Rao, the then mem- 
ber Planning Commission, has recommended the immediate 
setting up of a central organization in the form of a council for 
research in social sciences in the couniry. The council should be 
responsible for promoting, stimulating and assisting research in 
social science. It has also recommended that the council should 
provide financial support to institutions engaged in social science 
research, which are not eligible for financial assistance from the 
University Grants Commission. 

2. Sellection of Vice Chancellors — According to V, V. John. 
‘Dr. Kothari’s ‘Model Act’ Committee had suggested such an 
arrangement for the older universities. It also suggested direct- 
appointment of Vice Chancellors in new universities by Stnte 
Governments. In the Committee’s view this was better than the 
procedure that was now come to be known as the ‘Delhi pattern’ 
under which a selection committee of notabilities submit a panel 
of names for the Visitor or Chancellor to choose from. 

The basic mistake is in looking upon the office of Vice 
Chancellor as the Commission of professional ambition that 
his job is the most important in a new university will not be 
disputed. But it ought not be so in a well established university, 
where learning alone should be the measure of man’s importance. 
In such a university, it should be possible for senior members of 
the faculty to serve a term as Vice-Chancellor by rotation, and 
after such a brief stint, return to teaching and research.^ 

3. Selective Admission : The Commission proposes that 
during the first three Five Year Plans, a policy of open-door 
access has been in operation in course in Arts and Commerce id 
most of the affiliated colleges. A stage has, however, now been 
reached in the process of expansion when the policy of selective 
admissions will have to be extended to all sectors and all institu- 
tions of higher education. During the next two d ecades, the 

1. Hindustan Times 

2. V. V. John — How to choose better Vice-Chancellors. Hindustan 
Times— Dated 12 February, 67. 

Higher Education : Enrolment and Programme 93 

policy demand for higher education is expected to increase still 
further as primary education becomes universal and more and 
more students complete the secondary school course^ 

There are two important criteria needed for operating a 
programme of selective admission in higher education. — 

1 . The determination of the number of places available in 
an institution in relation to teachers and facilities avail- 
able to ensure that standards are maintained at an 
adequate level. 

2. Prescriptions of eligibility by the universities; and selec- 
tion by the institution concerned by the best students 
from amongst those who are eligible and seek admission. 

4. Part-time and Own-time Education : The present process 
of getting admission in higher education is to get enrolled as full- 
time student. There is no way out for those who can’t become 
full-time student. For those, who wish to get education, the 
Commission has proposed part-time and full time education in 
the form of evening colleges and correspondence courses. 

Similarly, the Commission’s view on the expansion of post- 
graduate courses and research, new universities, size of the 
colleges, student welfare, reorganisation of the courses, the social 
sciences, etc. have favourable considered by the great education- 
ists and common men who want to be a partner Id building the 

}. AggarwalJ. C.— Ibid, Page 131-132, 

The Governance of 

In the history of the universities many occassions come when 
the question of their governance faces a challenge in the form of 
student problem when police-force enters the campus, in appoint- 
ing the Vice-Chancellor or framing the courses and the appointing 
of Professors, Readers and the other staff. 

The Commission aware of the realities and difficulties in the 
universities has made certain valuable suggestions. 


Universities should evolve dynamic techniques of management 
and organisations suited to their special functions and purposes. 
The UGC should encourage the function of groups in universities 
to study the problem of educational administration and manage- 
ment of university affairs. 

(1) University Autonomy ; The proper sphere of university 
autonomy lies in the selection of students, teachers and the deter- 
mination of courses of study, methods of teaching the selection 
of areas and problems of research. 

(2) Autonomy within the Universities : (1) The universities 
should give considerable autonomy to their departments. Wider 
administrative and financial powers should be delegated to a 
committee of Management to be set up in each Department under 
the chairmanship of the head of the department. (2) The free- 
dom and autonomy of colleges must be recognised and respected 
in the same spirit as the university wants for itself. (3) There 
should be joint committee of teachers and students in each depart- 
ment and in every college, and a central committee under the 
chairmanship of the head of the institution for the discussion of 
common problems and difficulties Student representation should 
also be associated with the Academic councils and the courts of 
universities. (4) A suitable machinery for consultations between 
universities, the UGC, the Inter-University Board and theGovern- 
luent should bo developed for reaching discussions regarding 

The Governance of Universities 95 

number of students to be trained, courses of study and problems 
of applied research. 

(3) University Finances : (I) The State Governments should 
place adequate financial resources at the disposal of universities 
and simplify rules and procedures of operating them. (2) The 
UGC should be enable to give both development and maintenance 
grants to State Universities. (3) The finance of the universities 
should be placed on a sound footing on the basis of advice given 
by the UGC to the state Governments and the universities after 
periodical review. (4) Universities should be immune from direct 
governmental intervention and also from direct public account- 

(4) Role and Appointment of Vice Cbanceller : (1) While 
the choice of the Vice-Chancellor should eventually be left to the 
university concerned for the time being, the present ‘Delhi pattern’ 
or some variation of it may be adopted. The members of the 
Selection Committee for the Vice-Chancellor should be known 
for there eminence and integrity and there should be no objection 
to one of them being connected with the university, but he should 
not be a paid employee of the university. (2) The authority to 
appoint Vice-Chancellor during the first years of a university’s 
life should vest in the Visitor/Chancellor. (3) The Vice-Chancellor 
should, as a rule, be a distinguished educationist or eminent scholar 
with adequate administrative experience. (4) The office term of the 
Vice-Chancellor should be five years and he should not be appoint- 
ed for more than two terms in the same university. (5) All posts 
of Vice-Chancellor should be whole-time and carry a salary. 
(6) The retirement age for the Vice-Chancellor should be 65 years; 
an exception being made in the case of exceptionally qualified 
persons of All India eminence. (7) It would be an advantage if 
the successor to a Vice-Chancellor could be designated, so far as 
possible, in advance by a year or so. (8) Adequate powers should 
be vested in the Vice-Chancellor for the efficient working of the 

(5) Legislation for Universities ; (1) The court should be 
policy making body of the university with a membership of not 
more than one hundred, of which about half should be external. 
(2) The Executive Council with the Vice-Chancellor as Chairman 
should consist of 15-20 members, about half being internal an^ 
blilf external. (3) The Academic Council should be the so] 

96 Kothari Commission 

authority for determining the courses of study and standards. 
(4) A Standing Committee of the Academic Council should deal 
with urgent matters, if the Academic Council can not meet fre- 
quenty enough for the purpose. (5) Each university should have 
an Academic Planing Board for permanent planing and evalua- 
tion, detached from day administration. (6) The lUB should 
appoint a Committee to go into the question of reform of ritual 
and procedure of convocation functions. (7) The Governors of 
the State should be the Visitors of all Universities in the state 
and should have power to direct inspection or inquiry into 
the affairs of a university. (8) The Ministry of Education and 
UGC should take the initiative to revise existing legislation in 
India and to amend it in the light of the recommendation made. 
(9) The constitution of university should be formulated sufficiently 
general terms so as to leave room for and promote, innovation 
and experimentation. (10) A suitable machinery for tripartite 
consulations between the UGC, the Ministry of Education and 
the State Governments should be evolved before legislation rela- 
ting to universities is enacted. 

(6) Universities and the Law Courts ; The Government of 
India may request the Supreme Court to frame a suitable policy 
to help the maintenance of University Autonomy and the proper 
development of higher education. 

(7) Affiliated Colleges : (1) Affiliation of colleges should 
be granted by the Universities after consulations with the State 
Government. (2) A committee of Vice-Chancellors in the State 
should be set up to advise the Education Department regarding 
grant-in-aid to affiliated colleges. (3) There should be a Council 
of affiliated colleges in every affiliating university to advise the 
university on all matters relating to affiliation of colleges, (4) Affi- 
liation should be regarded as a privilege which is to be continually 
earned and deserved. (5) The UGC may examine the question 
of a small nucleus staff being sanctioned to each affiliating univer- 
sity for the proper organization of an inspection programme. 

(8) Government Colleges : Different approaches to suit 
local conditions and traditions may by devised for the manage- 
ment of Government colleges, e.g., the establishment of a separate 
Directorate of Collegiate Education or an autonomous organiza- 
tion for Government Colleges in a State, or placing each college 
under autonomous Board of Governors. 

The Governance of Universities 97 

(9) Private Colleges : (1) A discriminating policy should 
be adopted to that greater freedom and assistance to the really 
good private institution could be given. (2) The procedure for 
calculation and payment of grants-in-aid should be simplified on 
the lines recommended. 

(10) The Inter University Board : (1) The Statutory or 
deemed universities should become members of the lUB^ auto- 
matically. (2) The degree or diplomas granted by a statutory or 
deemed university in India should receive automatic recognition 
from all the other statutory or deemed universities. (3) The lUB 
should be strengthened financially to enable it to develop advisory, 
research and advice functions for and on behalf of the univer- 

(11) The University Grants Commission : (1) All higher 
education should be regarded as an integrated whole and the UGC 
should eventually represent the entire spectrum of higher educa- 
tion. For the time being, however, it would be more feasible to 
set up separate UGC — types organizations for agricultural, engi- 
neering and medical education and to create a machinery that 
would effectively co-ordinate them. (2) The UGC should consist 
of 12-15 members; not more than one third should be officials 
of government and at least one-third from the universities. There 
should be no objection to a serving Vice-Chancellor being 
appointed as a member of the UGC. (3) The UGC should adopt 
a practice of working through standing committee set up to deal 
with important responsibilities entrusted to it. (4) The Visiting 
Committees appointed by the UGC should visit each university 
every three years and work in greater details and depth. 
(5) Considerably larger funds should be available to the UGC to 
enable it to deal effectively with the magnitude and importance 

of problems and responsibilities as envisaged. (6) The responsi- 
bility of co-ordinating standards should continue to vest in one 
body, viz. the UGC. State UGC, should not therefore, be 


The universities of the day play very important role to 
inculcate social, moral and spiritual values among the students 
who are the builders of the future. Now-a-days a university faces 
the problem of autonomy, enrolment an d budget. So the Com . 

1. Now Association onudian Universities. 

98 Kothari Commission 

mission has suggested many new things to maintain the gover- 
nance of the temples of learning. A university cannot work 
efficiently until it has its own rules, regulations and teehniques 
and is free from outer control. These universities should ser 
the purpose of real education, the training of mind, body and tl 

(1) University Autonomy : The University autonomy U 
principally in three fields — (i) the selection of students, (ii) tl 
appointment and promotion of teachers; and (iii) the determinatic 
of courses of study, methods of teaching, and the selection of arei 
and the problems of research. In considering the problems of tl 
autonomy we should recognize that it should be maintained i 

(i) the university departments, colleges, teachers and student 

(ii) the relation of one university with another through UGC an 
lUB, (iii) the State and Central Governments. Some scholars ai 
of ths opinion that university autonomy has to be earned. It ma 
be a concept. We have transplanted it in an environmer 
where both the political and the academic traditions has made i 
an obvious way of life. 

The principle of university autonomy is based on the recogni 
tion of the fact that the university aims at objectives in the pursui 
of which expertise of an exceptional order is required and can b 
provided only by a community of scholars. The scholars can giv 
of their best only in an environment of freedom. This freedon 
has to be justified and sustained. However by the academn 

community’s capacity for self regulation, if such capacity shoulc 

be lacking within the academic community, we have an impossibli 
situation for no external higher education within a given university 
The university can be saved and sustained only by the learning ano 
the integrity of its own community of teachers and learners. H 
the community of teachers and learners are not committed to high 
ethical and intellectual standards, there is no alternative but to 
write oflF the university as falling outside the field of genuine higber 

University autonomy cannot become a reality without 
financial independence. Since our universities are dependent on 
public funds for the major of their expenditure, the temptation for 
a State Government to exact compliance with its wishes as the 
price for budgetary allocations may sometimes become irresistible. 
This temptation can be eliminated by legislating statutory grant.? 

The Governance of Universities 99 

to cover their normal running expenditure, the amount so fixed 
being subject to revision by a statutory body independent of govern- 
mental control. Such a body in each State, consisting of the vice- 
chancellors and at least one full time educationist other than the 
vice-chancellors, should not only advise the government in regard 
to the financial support of universities, but also assist the univer- 
sities in their programmes of self-assessment and mutual coope- 
ration. The scholars suggested that universities, by letting the 
public know of the nature of their programmes and the quality of 
their performance, should make an effort to raise revenues in 
addition to government grants. The other type of autonomy lies 
within the university. The basic idea of the autonomy within the 
campus lies with the principles of academic achievement, broad 
and magnanimous administrative discipline. There must be 
balance in academic and nonacedmic staff and their affairs. 

(2) University Finances : “State Governments should deal with 
understanding and imagination and place adequate financial 
resources at their disposal to enable them to carry out their obli- 
gations in an efficient way. It is essential to simplify rules and 
regulations and to operate them with speed and efficiently.”^ 

(3) Prior Approval for New Varsities : Dr. D. S. Kothari 
suggested to Central Government that the prior approval for new 
varsities should necessarily be taken. ^ It was stressed that no 
major legislation about universities should be undertaken without 
prior consultation between the Governments concerned, the union 
Education Ministry and the UGC. Such a convention should be 

(4) Selection of a Vice-Chancellor : The Commission suggested 
the pattern of selecting the Vice-Chancellors on Delhi University 
pattern and the person for the post should be an eminent scholar 
in the field of learning. 

(/; What is Delhi Pattern ? Dr. Kothari’s “model act” commi- 
ttee had suggested such an arrangement for the older universities. 
It also suggested direct appointment of Vice-Chancellors in new 
universities by State Governments. In the Committee’s view, 
this was better than the procedure that has now come to be known 
as the Delhi pattern’’, under which a selection committee of 

1 Agarwal J. C.— op. cit.. Page 42. 

2, U. G, C. Report, 1965-66 (Hindustan Times 31-8-1967). 

100 Kothari Commission 

notabilities submit a panel of names for the Visitor or Chancellor 
to choose from. 

The excellent choices made for Delhi University in recent 
years has won great praise for this procedure which it does not 
deserve. For when a Chancellor nominates a member of the 
selection committee and is able to make a final choice from among 
the names recommended by the committee it is not difficult to 
contrive the appointment of the person whom the Chancellor or 
the State Government want. Why not eliminate the elaborate 
make-believe and choose the favourite in a direct manner, so that 
the public would know who is really answerable for the choice ? 

(z7) Celebrity hunting : V.V. John says — Not that the selection 
committee procedure results usually in a wangle. The more fre- 
quent occurrance is that the committee’ in its favour and earnest- 
ness, goes celebrity-hunting for safety, plumbs for well known 
names. Better choices could be made if the selection committee 
instead of functioning in aloof and secret conclave, consulted 
representatives of the university’s faculty before making up their 
minds. What is suggested is not an opinion poll but a study of 
the actual needs of the university. 

Celebrity hunting has one advantage, the committee does 
not have to decide what qualities it is looking for in a vice-chan- 
cellor. A big name silences such inquiries. Such is the importance 
of being important. If, on the other hand, we acknowledged, that 
the needs of different univetsities may be different, and that, as 
Arnold Rugby said, “no man should meddle with a university 
who does not know it very well and love it very dearly”, we may 
end up by getting fewer celebrities but better vice chancellor.^ 

(5) Force from Government Control : Dr.A. Lakshmanswami 
Mudaliar, the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University says — a uni- 
versity is a temple of learning which the “iconaclast” could not 

be allowed to desecrate by introducing methods of control which 
may find a place in the market-square or the hustings. And yet 
the tendency to play this role among those who believe that they 
have the democratic authority is great indeed.”^ 

(6) Training of Administrators : Mr. M. C. Chagla expressed 

1 . V.V, John — How to Choose Better Vice-Chancellors — Hindustan 


2 . Hindustan Times— Dated 23. 12. 66, 

The Governance of Universities 10 i 

his view that an administrator is not born, he is made through 
training. He said — “The time for inclusion of administrative 
science as a subject in universities has now come, specially when the 
State is playing a bigger and bigger role in the national life of its 
people and when India and most other nations of Common 
Wealth need highly trained public services. We need adminis- 
trators who are flexible, not rigid, and human, not callous. We 
need an administrator who is not only a Government servant, but 
also, a servant of the public.”^ 

(7) Government and Private Colleges : The Commission 
has suggested to establish a separate Directorate for College 
Education at Government level. For private colleges, afliliation is 
not the right but it is earned. So this tradition should be 

1. Hindustan Times— Dated 5. 1. 1967. 

Education for Agricultun 

The Education Commission has laid much emphasis o 
agriculture. It is in favour of establishing one Agriculture 
University in each State. There should be a balance betwee: 
teaching, research and extension. 

We all realize that we are facing the food problem to daj 
We have to beg for food and we want to eradicate hunger fror 
our country. The fact is that we can solve our food problen 
with more production. Agriculture and its education is a mus 
for the country’s five lakhs villages. 

Therefore, the Commission stresses on the education fo 
agriculture. Following are the important recommendations » 
this connection. 


(1) Agricultural Universities : At least one agricultural 
university should be eshalished in each State. 

1. These universities should extend their scope of studies to 
cover a wide range of specialished courses to suit the 
needs of the time. 

2. A clear delineation of responsibilities between Agricult- 
ural Universities and the State Departments of 
Agricultural is necessary. 

3. Post-graduate work should become a distinctive features 
of Agricultural Universities which should be staffed with 
adequately trained personnel. 

4. Central Research Institute like the lARF, IVRP, NDRI^ 
and ICAR^ and the Agricultural Universities would 

1. Indian Agricultural Research Institute. 

2. Indian Veterinary Research Institute. 

3. National Dairy Research Institute. 

4. Indira Council of Agricultural Research. 

Education /or Agriculture 103 

constitute suitable centres for strong post-graduate 
schools in agriculture. 

5. Talent from as many fields as possible should be har- 
nessed to the betterment of agricultural research and 

6. Each university should have a well-equipped library with 
adequate staff. 

7. Co-ordinated, problem and production oriented research 
projects recently evolved by the JCAR should be develop- 
ed further. 

8. Duration of first degree course should ordinarily be five 
years, after ten years’ schooling. 

9. Teachers : — For as many of the staff members as possi- 
ble, there should be integrated assignments between 
class-room teaching and laboratory research, experi- 
mental research and work in the field with rural people. 

10. The UGC scales of pay should be extended to Agri. 
cultural Universities also. Other conditions should be 
made attractive. 

11. The strength of any faculty should be determined by 
needs and quality of staff and not by any rigid hierarchy, 

12. The faculties should have reasonable academic freedom. 

13. External examination should be reduced in importance 
and abolished as early as possible. 

14. A large scale programme of teachers training should be 
undertaken in 5 or 6 existing high quality centres offering 
attractive scholarships to graduates of science and 

15. Students : — Scholarships awarded should cover not less 
than 25% of the students in Agricultural Universities. 

16. Farm -.—Well-managed farms, about 1,000 acres in size 
with not less than 500 acres of cultivated area, should 
be attached to every agricultural university. 

17. Internship : — Possibilities of providing one year intern- 
ship on a well managed state university demonstration 
farm before awarding the degree to the students should 
be explored. 

18. Number, Size and Organisation In the process of esta- 
blishing one agricultural university in each State, the 

io4 Kothari Commission 

possibilities of converting into agricultural universities 
should also be studied. 

19. While some experimentation should be allowed, it is 
essential that all agricultural universities should confirm 
to some important principles such as, being single 
campus universities without any affiliated colleges. If 
for any exceptional reasons, the university should take 
over the responsibility for colleges outside its campus, 
they should be made constituent colleges under a unified 

(2) Contribution of other Universities for the Development 
of Agriculture : — Kothari commission says. Agricultural 
universities can and will undoubtedly play a leading 
role in the development of education for agriculture. 
But that is not enough. We would like to, urge that 
the development of agricultural education should be a 
national concern and should be regarded as a responsi- 
bility of the university system as a whole. 

1. Other universities wishing to introduce agricultural 
studies should be given all assistance. 

2. An academic relationship between some of the agricul- 
tural universities and the IITs should be developed. 
This can take the form, among other things, of an 
exchange of students of staff, and arranging common 
programme of study and research. 

3. The possibility of organizing agricultural faculties in one 
or two of the IITs and in some leading universities 
should be explored. 

(3) Agriculture Colleges : ( 1) New agricultural colleges 
should not be established and the training of undergradute and 
post-graduates in agriculture should be done in agricultural 
universities. (2) Where agricultural colleges are constituent 
colleges of a universities, they should be assisted to develop strong 
agricultural universities. (3) Every agricultural colleges should 
have a well-managed farm of at least 200 acres. (4) Quinquennial 
inspections of agricultural colleges'jointly by ICAR and UGC 
should be undertaken, and such colleges as do not come up to 
the requisite standards should be disaffiliated. Some of the 
courses may be converted to offer courses at a higher technician 
level instead of a degree. 

Education for Agriculture 105 

(4) Agricultral Polytechnics : (1) Agricultural poly- 

technics at post-matriculation level should be organized on prio- 
rity basis. These should be attached to agricultural universities 
and be large institutions with enrolment around 1,000 students. To 
meet immidiate needs. Courses may be added to existing poly- 
technics located predominantly in rural areas. (2) The polytechnics 
should be multipurpose institutions providing training for 
imparting the wide range of skills needed in agriculture and allied 
fields. In course of time, the polytechnics should offer short 
condensed courses, particularly for the young farmers and also of 
special interest to girls and women in rural areas. (3) Attractive 
scales of pay and adequate qualifications should be prescribed 
for the staff of these polytechnics. 

(5) Agricultural Education in Schools : (1) Attempts to train 
for vocational competance in farming through formal schooling 
in agriculture at primary and lower secondary levels have failed 
and further efforts should be held in abeyance. (2) Instead of any 
narrow vocational training, the school should impart a sound 
general education with particular emphasis on mathematics and 
science, as the best preparation for coping with the inevitable 
rapid changes characterizing our future agriculture. (3) The 
proposal for setting up a large number of Junior Agricultural 
Schools is beset with several difficulties and may fail to serve its 
objectives. It should be abandoned. 

C6) Agricultural Education as a Part of General Education : 
(1) In all primary schools including those in urban areas, some 
orientation to agriculture should form an integral part of general 
education. (2) Agriculture should also be made an important 
part of the work-experience at the school stage. (3) Undergradu- 
ate and postgraduate courses in the colleges and universities 
should give prominence to orientation to rural and agricultural 
problems, UGC and other authorities should take suitable steps 
in this regard. (4) Similar orientation in agriculture and rural 
problems should be introduced in all teacher-training 

(7) Extension Programme : (1) In raising the professional 
and teachnical competence of VLWs^ and of the specialists who 
support them, the agricultural university and polytechnics should 
render all necessary assistance by making available the specialist 

1. Village Levels Workers, 

iC6 Kothari commission 

staff and by organizing special courses. (2) When the proposed 
separation of supply services from the extension work takes 
place, the extension part of it should be transferred to the agri- 
cultural university maintaining, at the sametime, closest liason 
between extension work, supply and other programme services of 
the department of agriculture. (3) The target should be to set up 
at least one primary extension centre in every community develop- 
ment block for the purpose of extension work, within a cycling 
distance of the area served. There should be trained personnel 
in the centres. (4) Greater use should be made of successful 
farmers in the carrying out extension work in education. (5) The 
individual village farmers attending courses at primary extension 
centres should be encouraged to start Farmer's Study Circles in 
their villages. (6) Fullest use should also be made of radio, films 
and other audio-visual aids in educating farmers and the rural 

(8) Manpower needs : Steps should be taken for preparing 
more accurate esiimates of the requirements of manpower in 
agricultural development. 

(9) The Role of ICAR and UGC : (1) Responsibility for 
ensuring that agricultural education is launched on the basis of 
an integrated approach to teaching, research and extension can 
best be carried out by ICAR. (2) There should be some overlap 
in membership of the UGC and the above Standing Committee 
and common programme should be evolved for the development 
of higher education in agriculture. 


The Education Commission has rightly suggested that an 
Agricultural University should be set up in every State. When 
so much emphasis is laid on maximising farm output, it is 
essential that steps should be taken to impart agricultural know- 
ledge based on the latest scientific research. At present India 
has made marked progress in the direction of industrialization 
and other big projects but in the matter of food, it is lagging 

The stress laid by the Commission on the Importance of 
agriculture education and the emphasis on the study of science 
with more pronounced vocational basis at the secondry school 

1. Search Light— July 3, 1966 

Education for Agriculture 10^ 

level are according to educationists here symbolic of the Com- 
mission’s realistic approach to the problems of Indian Education. 
Every body here agrees to the point that work-experience and 
social service must form the integral part of general education. 
This reading of the Education Commisson has special signifi- 
cance in Kerala where educated unemployment is the greatest^. 

For agricultural education, the Commission has suggested 
that the existing well equipped agricultural colleges should be 
converted into Agricultural Universities. They should impart 
courses on the diploma and degree level. Side by side they should 
also conduct short intensive courses for specific purpose for the 
benefit of farmers. The existing agricultural primary schools and 
high schools should be converted into schools of general education 
with a bias towards agriculture. The Commission has discovered 
that agriculture education on the school level has not been very 
successful; but some work of this type under the subject of work- 
experience should be included as a part of general education in 
both rural and urban schools for all pupils irrespective of their 
future courses. The statement that school education in Agriculture 
has failed will need greater scrutiny, before a firm policy in this 
matter is decided®. 

(1) Need of Radical Change : Dr. D. S. Kothari says — “In 
a rapidly changing world of today, educational policies should 
also have a built in flexibility, so that it could adjust to the chang- 
ing circumstances. “This is possible only if we remove the rigidit) 
in°the present day educational pattern. There should be dost 
contacts between engineering and agriculture faculties. Today^ 
most of the top Indian universities have no faculties oj 
agriculture. Such faculties are most important both for the devel- 
opment of education and research in agriculture and for providing 
to the future leaders and administrators a feel of the basic 
problems of the country’s agriculture”.® 

(2) Social Service by Agricultural Graduates : h/k, V. P. 
Naik has asked the students of agricultural colleges to strive hard 

1 Amrita Bazar Patrika— July 17. 1966. 

2 Dr G S. Khair— The Education Commission— Some Outstandini 
Features-The Progress of Education. Poona Vol. XU No. 5 De< 

Page 173. 

3. Hindustan Times— March 10, 1967. 

108 iCothari Commission 

to equip themselves during their studies so that they could face 
the problems properly when they left the colleges. They should 
not remain content with getting some information during their 
college days, but try to acquire knowledge which they could put 
into practice later for the benefit of the country. Institutions like 
agricultural schools and colleges were closely linked with human 
welfare and therefore, those who acquired knowledge from such 
institutions should move into the rural areas and try to bring 
about a revolution in the field of agriculture. 

Referring to the attempts now being made by the country to 
import food grains from foreign countries, it would be better to 
starve in self-respect rather than depend on others for food. 
Attempt should be made by the educated class, kisaiis and others 
to bring out a revolution in agriculture. Nearly 80 percent of the 
basic needs of the people, depended on agriculture. Unless 
agricultural production was substantially increased, India could 
not maintain her self-respect.^ 

1. Hindustan Times — Jan. 1. 1967, 

Vocational, Technical and 
Engineering Education 


A concerted and sustained programme is needed to ensure 
that by 1986, some 20% of all enrolments at the lower secon- 
dary level and some 50% beyond class X are in part-time or full- 
time vocational and professional courses. 

The Commission stressed that vocational education cour- 
ses at school stage should be predominantly terminal in character 
with adequate opportunities for the exceptionally gifted child to 
rejoin the main stream move higher through further study. 


(1) Training Semi-skilled Workers— (1) There should be a 
further expension of facilities in IITs., beginning by at least a 
doubling of available places in the Fourth Plan. The minimum 
admission age should be gradually lowered to 14, with suitable 
adjustments in courses. (2) Junior Technical School should be 
renamed. Technical High Schools should offer courses clearly 
terminal in character. There should be greater use of available 
time to meet the requirements of the Apprenticeship Act. Enough 
flexibility and experimentation should be permitted in the or- 
ganisation of various courses. (3) Training in ITIs and technical 
schools must be production oriented. (4) Skilled Workers’ 
training courses with every requirements below class X should 
also be attached to polytechnics to make better use of existing 
facilities. (5) Facilities for vocational and technical training for 
school leavers entering employment should be increased by 
Part-time Day release, Correspondence, Sandwich or Short 
intensive ’course basis. Rigidity of approach in the organisation 
of these courses should be avoided. 

(2) Technicians’ Training— The over-all ratio of engineers 
to technicians should be raised from the present figure of 1 : 1-4 
to 1 : 2-5 by 1975 and to 1 : 3 or 4 by 1986. (2) Courses for 

training of technicians should be revised in the light of perioriic 

1 1 0 Kothari Commission 

investigations to be carried out in co-operation with industry, 
aimed at job analysis and specifications in terms of levels and 
clusters of skills and responsibilities for technicians. (3) Diploma 
training should become more practical by including industrial 
experience. This practical training should be of a project or 
problem oriented type — (4) Polytechnics should be located only 
in industrial areas, while those already functioning in rural areas 
should develop courses allied to agriculture and agro-industries. 
(5) Teachers for polytechnics should be increasingly recruited 
from industry, by relaxing, if necessary, academic qualification 
requirements. Salaries should not be linked to academic quali- 
fications only, (6) To give training in as near realistic conditions 
as possible vacations should be used by the students and staff to 
do production work on simple tools either for equipping secon- 
dary schools for sale. (7) Teaching of science and mathematics 
in polytechnics should be strengthened particulary in the first 
two years. Technicians Courses should included introduction to 
industrial psychology and management, costing and estimation— 
(8) Polytechnics should increasingly adopt sandwich type courses 
in co-operation with industry — (9) In view of low mobility of 
diploma-holders in the country the 4th and 5th Plans should be 
designated largely with local requirements in view, keeping at 
the same time, a watchful eye on total national needs. (lO) 
Courses of special interest to girls should be offered in all 
polytechnics at both the certificate and diploma levels and girls 
completing the lower secondary course should be encouraged to 
take them up. (11) Every effort must be made to reduce the 
present high wastage rates in polytechnics to a minimum and 
to expand existing polytechnics to their optimum size. (12) 
Selected polytechnics should provide post-diploma courses for 
technicians with some years of experience in industy to quality 
at higher level technicians. 

(3) Other Vocational Education - (1) At the higher secondary 
level (Classes XI and XII) alongside the polytechnics, there is 
considerable scope for starting a range of interesting courses in 
commercial, clerical, scientific and industrial trades and in areas 
of special interest of girls. This should be fully exploited. (2) 
Products of Technical High Schools and Polytechnics should be 
encouraged to set up small enterprizes of their own or to join 
together with others in creating small scale workshops, industries 
and services needed in the community. 

Vocational, Technical And Engineering Education 111 

(4) Education of Engineers : (1) AllTnstitutions not con- 
forming to the standards should be improved, converted to insti- 
tutions training technicians are closed. (2) For selected branches 
of engineering such as a electronics and instrumentation, recruit- 
ment of well-qualified B. Sc. students should be encouraged with 
courses suitably adjusted. (3) Anomalies in the scales of pay 
among statf members in science, technology faculties in 
engineering institutions should be removed. (4) Practical training 
for full time degree students should commence from the third 
year of the course, and should be properly prepared and super- 
vised in co-operation with the industry. Wherever possible 
sandwich type of courses should be adopted. (5) Workshop 
practice should be more production oriented. (6) Courses at both 
degree and diploma level should be diversified to meet the 
changing needs. (7) For colleges and institutes of technology to 
become more concerned with the needs of industry, research design 
projects sponsored either by industry or Government should be 
made a part of the curriculum. (8) Syllabus should be continual- 
ly revised in consultation with expert committees, carefully avoi- 
ding and rigid conformity. (9) Development of courses and 
manpower estimates in new fields such as electronics, instruments 
technology including automation, chemical technology, aero- 
nautics, astronaantics, and nuclear power generation should be 
carefully planned in advance. (10) Teachers should be allowed 
to undertake consultancy for industry. Wide spread summer 
institutes should be organised, (II) Suitable salary scales should 
be offered to make the proffession attractive and to ensure that 
well qualified engineers may work in teaching and research for 
significant periods in their careers. (12) Institute of TechnologJ' 
should undertake large scale teacher’s training programmes for 
graduate and postgraduate students All such courses should 
include a study of a second modern ‘world language’ such as 
Russian or German. The scheme for centres of advanced study 
should be extended to cover technology field also. (13) Fre- 
quent transfers of teachers and principals in Government colleges 
for other than professional reasons must be stopped. (14) Special 
consideration should be paid for the timely release of foreign 
exchange and the stock-piling of essential equipment. (15) Poly- 
technics should be discouraged from acquiring sophisticated 
eqnipment which is used for only a few days in the year. (16) 
Institutions should be encouraged to manufacture prototype sub- 

112 Kothari Commission 

stitutes for imported items of equipment, (17) Admission require- 
ments to these courses should include at least one year’s ex- 
perience within some industry. (18) Reasearch at this level 
should be diverted towards problem of industry. Large numbers 
of those taking up post-graduate courses should be sponsered by 
industry. (19) A regular doctorate for professional development 
work within industry in addition to a Ph. D. research degree 
should be created. (20) Indiscriminate proliferation of courses 
should be avoided and location of highly specialised courses 
should be determined at the national level. (21) The practice 
of levying capitation fee for awarding seats in engineering 
colleges should be stopped. 

(5) Manpower Requirements — (1) There is need for rigorous 
and more refined studies for estimating technical manpower 
requirements at all levels. (2) For the immediate future, attention 
should be given to (he elimination of present high wastage rates 
at all levels and to improvement in quality of instruction offered. 
Existing marked variations in the socio-economic background 
of student in technical institutions can be reduced by a greater 
equalization of educational attainments in secondary schools 
between urban and rural areas and by adoption of better ad- 
mission tests. 

(6) Medium Education : At the secondary and polytechnic 
stage, the regional language should be the medium of instruction. 
Vigorous action is required for the preparation of good technical 
text-books in regional languages. 

(7) Practical Training : Industrial Concerns or Departments 
fleeted under the Central Government Practical Training Scheme 
as also the trainees, should be carefully chosen. 

(8) Co-operation with Industry : A Central Scheme of sub- 
sidy to industrial concerns providing training facilities should be 
started. Suitable qualified training officers should be posted to 
such industry or groups of industries. 

(9) Professional Societies : Adequate safe-guards have to 
be devised to ensure that requisite standards are maintained by 
the professional bodies in all the examinations conducted by them. 
The societies should also be associated with the part-time techni- 
cal courses at higher secondary level. 

(10) Corresponding Course : An immediate beginning should 
be made to develop a wide range of vocational and technical 

Vocational, Technical and Engineering Education 


courses through correspondence. However, before this medium 
could be adopted extensively, very careful preparation and testing 
would be required. 

(11) Administration— (1) UGC type organisation for techni- 
cal education with a full-time chairman should be set up with 
adequate representation from UGC, Professional bodies, indus- 
try and concerned Ministries. (2) The institutes of Technology 
and comparable institutions should be given full University 
status, while relating their individual names and characteristics. 
(3) As part of Board of School Education, Directorates of 
Technical Education should be set up at the State level with 
adequate powers among other things for recruitment of staff, 
thus removing a number of procedural delays. (4) Chairman of 
Boards of Governors of Regional Engineering Colleges 
should be drawn from a panel of distinguished educationists. 
(5) Principals of Colleges should have among other powers full 
discretion in matters relating to the building up of edu- 
cational facilities in their institutions within financial ceiling and 
policy guide lines. 


The Commission has recommended various points of view 
to re-orient Technical and Vocational education. Technical and 
Vocational education is the base of our national development. 
The main purpose of our education is to develop attitudes. The 
commission has tried to establish ideas of productivity and deve- 
loping attitudes side by side. 

Following are the essential points which are thought over 
by various scholars and eminent persons in the related field. 

(1) Closer Links between Industry and Research : Mr. G. L. 
Mehta^ called for closer co-operation between industry and tech- 
nological institutions and research centres for economic growth. 
India’s basic problem was not such the poverty of natural resour- 
ces or lack of capital and foreign exchange as under development 
of human capacities. It was grave error to under-estimate the 
importance of the human being in this age of automation. With 
the transformation of a stagnant economy brought about by tech- 
nological changes and pointed out how the demarcation between 
science and industry had gradually disappeared over the last cen- 
tury and a half. 

1, Chairman, Indian Investment Centre. 

114 Kothari Commission 

Indian industry was slowly becoming conscious of the impor- 
tance and utility of technology and research. For nearly two 
decades entrepreneurs had little incentive for improving elBciency 
or reducing costs because their energies were directed towards 
obtaining licences and fulfilling ofiBcial conditions rather than 
improving productivity. The technologist and the technician 
have yet to win recognition and attain their place in India’s 
industrial structure. 

(2) Preparation of the Attitudes : Technology was not 
simply a matter of some contrivances and devices and tools for 
ostentation. It could save men from drudgery, obviate the need 
for employment under dirty and humiliating conditions, ensure 
safety and security and provide more leisure and scope for crea- 

Not merely techniques and skills, but attitudes of mind were 
also essential for advancement. In the ultimate analysis it was 
man rather than money that could and even for the exploitation ^ 
of industrial resources it was the initative, enterprise and co-ope- 
ration of men which were vital. 

(3) Significant Expansion : Technical education recorded 
‘significant expansion’ during the third plan and admission in 
1965-66 were of the order of 23,000 in Degree courses and 43,000 
in Diploma courses. About 10,100 graduates and 17,500 diploma 
holders passed out of technical institutions during the year. 

Technical education is given a tertiary place in the above 
list. That is why the technical education is the back bone of 
our country’s development. Through that “spiritual vaccum” in 
which young people found themselves and said that the old 
religious discipline was fast losing its hold on the people whif 
they had not imbibed in the real sense the scientific discipline o 
today. Without generating the hopes and ideals and generou 
enthusiasm which were the privilege of youth, no changes in thi 
machanism of the educational system could help. Unfortunately 
the sense of social movement, of a large traditionally guided anc 
convention-ridden country building itself up deliberately anc 
with a sense of large purpose seemed to be all put lost. The need 
was to generate a new momentum and a sense of direction. 

Science Education and 


The Commission has devoted a special chapter to the problem 
of Science Education. According to J. Robert Oppenheimer — 

Tt is in this high-altitude survey that one sees the general 
surprising quantitative features that distinguish our time. This 
is where the listings of science endowments and laboratories 
and boofo published show up ; this is where we learn that the 
arts and sciences are flourishing on a world-wide scale. But there 
are some odd features as well ; the superhighways, of massive 
achievement and mass culture, seem to have little connection with 
the villages, the small and the intimate. The superhighways start 
anywhere, end anywhere, and sometimes appear almost by. design 
to disrupt the quiet of the villages of old ways. 

In the natural sciences there are and have been and the likely 
to continue to be heroic days. Discovery follows discovery, radical 
ways of thinking unfamiliar to common sense and connected with 
it by decades or centuries of increasings specialised and unfamiliar 
experience. In any science there is harmony between practi- 
tioners. Whether he is part of a team or solitary in his own study, 
the scientist, as a professional, is a number of a community. This 
experience will make him acutely aware of how limited, bow 
inadequate, how precious is this condition of his life ; for in his 
relations with a wider society, there will be neither the sense of 
community nor of objective understanding. 

The specialization of science is an inevitable accompaniment 
of progress ; yet it is full of dangers, and it is cruelly wasteful. 
And this is one reason why scientists belong in universities ; where 
in teaching, in the association of scholars and in the friendship of 
teachers and taught, the narrowness of scientific life can best be 
moderated and scientific discoveries find their way into the wider 
life of man.’^ 

b Hindustan Times— Dated 5. 3. 1967, 

116 Kothari Commission 

I. THE recommendations 

(1) General Principles : The progress, welfare and security 
of the nation depends critically on a rapid, planned and sustained 
growth in the quality and extent of education and research in 
science and technology. Following measures should be adopted 
to make rapid progress : — 

1. A rigorously selective approach has to be adopted. 

2. In post-graduate studies and research, the standards of 
attainment must bear international comparision through 
careful selection of the subjects of study. 

3. We should determine our priorities and programmes in 
education and research on the basis of hard 'indigenous' 
thinking and need, and not follow the fashion set by 
other countries whether highly ‘advanced’ or not. 

4. The development of science must derive its ‘nourishment’ 
from our cultural and spiritual heritage and not by-pass 

5. The need from the earliest stage of science education for 
a proper understanding of the basic principles and the 
process of scientific abstract abstraction and creative 
thinking must be emphasized. 

(2) Science. Education : (1) Apart from improving the 
standards of the post-graduate courses, the post-graduate enrol- 
ment in science and mathematics need be expanded several fold 
in coming decades to meet the demands of rapidly expanding 
secondary and higher education and of research and industry. 
(2) It is necessary to develop a number of centres of Advanced 
Study in Science and Mathematics with adequate staff having the 
convention of visiting professors, (3) The regional imbalances 
in the development of science education should be reduced be 
minimum. This education should be related to economic growth. 
(4) There is urgent need to revise drastically the under-graduate 
and post-graduate curriculum in science. (5) In science depart- 
ments a proper balance between experimental and theoretical 
aspects should be maintained. (6) There should be well equipped 
workshops in every college and university department of science. 
(7) Students in science subjects should have some knowledge of 
the theory of errors, basic statistical concepts, and statistical 
design of experiments. (8) Apart from the evaluation of class 
records and the experiments performed by students, there need be 

Science fiducation and Research il7 

no pratical examinations as part of the final lamination. (9) 
There is urgent need to introduce an element of flexibility and 
innovation in the organisation of courses for the Master’s degree. 
Combination courses consisting of, one major subject and one 
subsidiary subject should be provided, (10) It will be great 
advantage if major departments in life-sciences have on their 
academic staff a small number of physical scientists (including 
Mathematicians) specially selected for their interest in the study 
of biological phenomena. (11) The need of the day is to bring 
science and technology closer together in our educational system. 
(12) Apart from the regular two-year M. Sc. courses, there is 
need to provide one year courses or of even shorter period, for 
specialised training in subjects relevant to pressent scientific, 
industrial and other needs. (13) It would be desirable for univer- 
sities and engineering institutions to enrol qualified industrial 
workers for evening and correspondence courses. Special courses 
other than regular diplomas, should also be organised. (14) There 
is need for the introduction of a new degree beyond the M. Sc. 
stage. The course should include with advantage, on an optional 
basis, elements of pedagogy. (15) The programme of the summer 
science institutes bring together, in active participation, school 
and college teachers and leading university professors. (16) The 
lUB and UGC should take a lead to ensure that, by the end of 
the Fourth Plan, most of the books required at the undergraduate 
level and considerable number at the postgraduate level are pro- 
duced in the country. (17) Steps should be taken for the evalua- 
tion of a scientific terminology in Indian languages. 

(3) Investment in Research : In the industrially advanced 
countries the growth of investment in research and development 
and of manpower engaged in these activities has surpassed all 
expectations. The Indian expenditure on Research Development 
is 0-3% of the GNP.. Our efforts will have to be stepped up in 
this matter. 

(4) University Research in Science : (1) The creative scien- 
tists and engineer of a country are its most precious and scarce 
assets and should find place in universities where there ‘multi- 
plies effect’ is generally maximum : they contribute not only to 
scientific research but to the building up of new talent. (2) It is 
important that more and more university people that is teachers 
and students- should perform more and more research work of 

1 1 8 Kothari Commission 

a better and still quality. As an ultimate goal, every univei 
research should become a teacher and every teacher, a researc 
(3) Publication of qualitative research, apart from good teac 
ability, should become one of the basic criteria for advancer 
of teachers in their university career, (4) Wherever practici 
active scientists in the CSIR, AEC and other research institul 
outside the university system should be invited and induce 
participate in teaching and research work, full-time or part* 
for short or long periods. (5) It should be made possibk 
selected post-graduate students to spend, during their course w 
a term or two in another university or institution specializin 
the subject of their interest. (6) The UGC scheme of assis 
teachers, research workers, and laboratory technicians to ’ 
universities and research institutions for short periods (a 
weeks to a few months) should be considerably expanded. f7) 
development of team-work is an essential condition for 
improvement of the quality of university. (8) The number 
research studies under the supervision of the head of the depi 
ment or any other teacher should be limited. Research stude 
should also be assigned to younger members of the staff. (9) 1 
qualification for Ph. D., enrolment used be up-graded. We sho 
encourage research minded engineering graduates to go in direc 
for Ph. D in Mathematics, Physics and other science subjects. 

(5) Mathematics : It is important that a deliberate eff 
is made to place India on the “World Map of Mathematics” wi 
in the next two decades or so. Advanced Centres of Study 
Mathematics for upgrading the knowledge and understanding 
school and college teachers should be established. 

1. University department of mathematics should take in 
rest in Programmed Learning. 

2. One or two special secondary schools for pupils wi 
unusual mathematical ability should be up in the ne 

3. A special effort should be made by the UGC to provi 
computation, installations ndatraining in programnn 
on a selective basis in the universities. 

4. It would be desirable to support energetically and dev 
lop one or two active centres for the study of brain ar 
psychosomatic phenomena, using modern techniques at 
also drawing upon past Indian experience in this 
which even to-day in some ways is of great significanc 

Science Education and Research 11 ! 

(6) Equipment : (I) Measure will have to be found fo] 
efficient use of existing equipment and only such equipment ai 
cannot be produced within the country and whose import is in- 
escapable should be improved. (2) The UGC and the CSIR 
should actively encourage and support some of the universities anc 
national laboratories to organize instrument calibration and repaii 
service for the general use of the universities. Training of labo- 
ratory technicians should receive high priority. (3) A special unit 
should be set up to study and do research in laboratory design. 

(7) Administration of Science Departments : The administra- 
tion of science departments needs be radically reorganized withou 
delay. If it is to make the fullest use of its resources, it is necessar} 
to associate its staff with administration and decision-making ir 
the department. 

(8) Pure and Applied Research : (I) Today, with the advance 
of science and technology, the distinction between pure and appli- 
ed research between a research scientist and a research engineer 
has become artificial, and in service fields (e. g., electronics) it 
has almost disappeared. Applied work such as developing 
important new techniques (new for the country) or designing and 
fabricating special instruments or apparatus should receive 
proper recognition and it should be made possible for such work 
to earn Ph.D. awards. (2) Left to itself, there is almost always 
a tendency for research (even in project oriented laboratories) to 
become purer and purer. The technical and research institutes 
should place special emphasis on applied and industrial research. 

(9) Expenditure on University Research— (1) By the end of 
the decade, some-time like a quarter of the total university ex- 
penditure should be devoted to research. (2) It would be desirable 
that in the early stages the UGC makes separate alloctions to 
the universities for research purposes. (3) A related matter of 
great importance is the provision of adequate foreign exchange. 

(10) Basic Research Out-side the Universities ; At present 
there are a number of institutions in the country which devote 
themselves for university type of research but function outside the 
university system. A serious effort should be made to bring them 
within the universities, or at any rate, to link them intimately with 
the universities. 

(11) Brain Drain : A considerable proportion of those who 

l20 Kothari Commissioii 

go abroad tend to say indefinitely and a sizeable number accept 
foreign nationality. The migration is largely to the U. S. A. All 
those who go out of India are not necessarily first rate scientists, 
nor are they of any critical importance to the country’s require- 
ments. But the problem is of sufficient importance to merit a 
close and systematic study. 

(12) Fellowship for Overseas Training ; Apart from fellow- 
ships awarded by foreign agencies, there is a real need for insti- 
tution by the Government of a limited number of research 
fellowships, say about 100, to be awarded every year for study 
and research abroad. These fellowship should be awarded to 
persons of outstanding ability and there should be some form of 
‘bonding’ for them to return to their country. 

(13) National Science Policy — It is essential to have an ad- 
visory body which should have on it, besides heads of major 
agencies concerned with scientific research, persons who have a 
high standing and regard to their profession and who inspire 
general — confidence a proportion of these members should be 
distinguished young scientists in their thirties, x X X It should 
also review continuously the national research policy situation. 
(2) Bodies concerned with science policy and implementations 
and which have executive and managerial functions requiring 
detailed and expert examination of diverse issues should ordinari- 
ly have professional scientists, engineers or science administrators 
of high standing as their chairman. (3) It should be a major 
task of the national research policy, and policies of the univer- 
sities to provide a ‘climate’ conductive to research, and to prevent 
and eliminated, through energetic and public measures all dangers 
and infirngements of autonomy and freedom of action in research. 
(4) In determining our priorities for research, we should be 
guided by our own national needs and not be undually influence’d 
by what may happen to be the current fashion in science. 

114) Science Academy : (1) In India the role of a National 
Academy is performed partly by the National Institute of Sciences. 
However, it may need some drastic reorgnization, if the institute 
is to exercise a vigorous leadership in science and play a more 
significant role in the scientific activities of the nation. (2) India 
is almost the solitary case of a country which is not represented 
on the ICSU by a professional Academy but by the Government. 
This function should be a responsibility to the Academy. 

Science Education and Research l2l 


According to Dr. G. S. Khair — The modern society and 
India cannot afford to neglect this branch of discipline. The 
progress and advance in the teaching of science in other countries 
should be carefully watched and our courses and libraries should 
be re-organised to bring this education as up to date as possible.^ 

The Commission has emphasised the utilization of scientific 
manpower, science from earlier stage, special courses and special 
responsibilities. The Commission has also stressed on books, 
correspondence courses, part-time and own-time education, etc. 

The Education Commission’s report had sought to lay em- 
phasis on science education. To meet the needs of our developing 
economy; such an orientation is a fundamental requirement. Un- 
fortunately however science education has been on the decline 
during the last five or six years. 

Enrolment for science subjects so the Delhi University has 
declined from 12'04 percent in 1961-62 to I0'6 percent in 1964-65. 
During this period however, science enrolment in the country as 
a whole rose from 29'2, to 3T3, per cent. During the last two 
years, the picture has not changed. Science enrolment has failed 
to keep peace with the increase in the total enrolment in the 

There has been an encouraging growth of scientific and techni- 
cal publications in India during the last years. The percentage 
break up is — 

English 57'2 



Marathi 4’7 



Tamil 4-2 



Other Language— 3-00 

The Commission desires that much progress should be made 
in this field.® 

The Advisory Committees on Science Education should be 
set up according to the commission. But we feel that these 
Advisory Committees are of no use and these are expensive also. 
Seminar system should be adopted instead of setting up an 

advisory board. 

j - Khair — The Education Commission : Some Out-standing 
Features. '‘TJw progress of Education" Poona. Vol. XLI No. 5. December 

1.66. Page— 171. _ 

2. Hindustan Times— Dated Feb. 16, iVO/. 

122 Kothari Commission 

Research in Science is the most important work in a university 
Research in Science is an expensive task, therefore, the Commis 
sion has rightly suggested that attractive scholarships and grani 
should be given to those who are interested in scientific research. 

“If science is to be pursued with full vigour and zest an 
is to become a mighty force in Indian renaissance, it mui 
derive its nourishment from our cultural and spiritual heritag 
and not bypass it. Science must become an integral part of oi 
cultural and spiritual heritage”^ It is possible when scienc 
takes root in native soil and is no longer an exotic plant, il 
growth pattern may be visibly influenced by those feature 
which have been characteristic of Indian philosophic thougli 
and civilization. Part of the science ‘fashion’ may be set by u 
reflecting Indian ethics and values judgments. Let us remembe 
that thinking and creativity have a considerable element of th 
pre-conscious, the Commission comments. 

1, Kothari, D. S. (Dr.) — Science Education. 

Adult Education 


Adult education is by nature a voluntary activity ; the basic 
driving force is, therefore, the individual motivation of the adult. 
It may be clear to planners, educators and administrators that 
national security and integration, productivity and population 
control, health and general welfare of the people would improve 
through wide-spread adult education and training. This may not 
be so immediately apparent to the individual farmer or urban 
dweller that he should be willing to sacrifice some time in order 
to acquire such education. It is essential that the literacy pro- 
gramme should be presented in ways which are meaningful to 
the adult and related in clear and understandable way to the en- 
vironmental conditions in which he lives. 


(1) Liquidation of Illiteracy— (1) Every possible effort should 
be made to eradicate illiteracy from the country as early as 
possible and in no part of the country, however backward, 
should it take more than 20 years. The national percentage of 
literacy should be raised to 60 by 1971 and to 80 by 1976. (2) As 
a first step to arrest growth of illiteracy, the following measures 
should be taken, (i) Expansion of universal schooling of five 
years’ duration to the age group 6—11. (ii) Provision of part- 
^ime education to those children of are group 11—14 who either 
miss schooling or drop prematurely out of the school, (iii) Pro- 
vision of part-time general and vocational education to the 

younger adults of the age group 15— 30. (3) For the liquidation 

of illiteracy a two-fold strategy comprising the selective approach 
and the mass approach should be adopted, (i) Under selective 
approach, programmes should be adopted for specified groups of 
ddults which could be easily identified controlled and motivated 
for intensive literacy work. All commercial or industrial firms, 
development projects, public and private sector should be made 

124 Kotiiari Commission 

responsible for making their employees functionally literate with- 
in a period of three years of their employment, (ii) Under mass 
approach, all available educated men and women in the country 
should be mobilized for raising of force to cambat illiteracy and 
utilize it in a well planned literacy compaign. In the organisation 
of mass campaign, the teachers, students and ail educational insti- 
tutions should be actively involved. All the students up to the 
under-graduate classes should be required to teach the adults as a 
part of compulsory national service programme. Teachers should 
also participate in this programme. The school in particular 
should be transformed into Centre of Community life. No literacy 
campaign should be launched without careful planning and 
preparation. (5) In order to promote literacy among women 
condensed courses for women sponsored by the Central Social 
Welfare Board should be adopted : appointment of ‘Village 
Sisters’ should be encouraged for teaching village women and 
organising adult education among local communities. (6) The 
mass media of communication should be effectively used as a 
powerful instrument for creating the climate and imparting 
knowledge and skills necessary for improving quality of work and 
standard of life. (7) In order to retain the literacy campaign must 
have adequate follow up including further education, the use of 
literacy and the production of reading material. 

(2) Continuing Education — (1) a parallel part system of 
education be created to provide adults with opportunities for 
taking the same diplomas and degrees as students in schools 
and colleges get. (2) Educational institutions should give the 
lead in organizing adhoc courses which will help people to 
understand and solve their problems and to acquire wider knowled- 
ge and experiences. (3) Further education should be provided 
for workers for improving their knowledge and skills, widening 
their horizon in life, including in them a sense of responsibility 
towards their profession and improving their careers. Special 
part-time sandwich courses should be offered to them which 
would lead them step by step to higher courses. (4) Special 
institutions such as those run by the Central Welfare Board for 
Adult Women and the Vidyapeeths in Mysore State should be 
established. The existing institutions should be frequently reviewed 
in order to enable them to be of service to the rural community. 

(3) Correspondence Course — (1) In order to give education 
to those who are unable even to attend part time courses^ 

Adult Education 125 

widespread organization of Correspondence Courses should be 
organised. (2) Students taking correspondence courses should 
be provided opportunities to meet the teachers occasionally ; 
they should be given the status of recognised students, and 
where possible be attached to some colleges in order to enable 
them to make use of the library and other facilities. (3) Corres- 
pondence Courses should be supported by well coordinated 
Radio and Television programmes. (4) Correspondence Courses 
should not be confined to preparing students for the University 
degree but should also provide agricultural, industrial and other 
workers such special courses of institution as would help them to 
improve production. (5) Correspondence courses should be 
made available for those who desire to enrich their lives by 
studying subjects of cultural and aesthetic value. (6) Correspon- 
dence courses should be developed for the teachers in schools to 
keep them abreast with new knowledge as well as with new 
methods and techniques of teaching. (7) The Ministy of Education 
in collaboration with other ministries should establish a National 
Council of Home Studies, for the purpose of accrediation and 
evaluation of agencies which provide correspondence courses, 
identification of the areas in which different types of Corres- 
pondence courses would be of benefit, to promote creation of 
such courses through proper agencies, and for conducting eva- 
luation and research. (8) Opportunity to take examination con- 
ducted by Secondary Education Board and Universities in the 
country should be made available to those who wish to work on 

their own without any assistance. 

(4) The Libraries : The recommendations of the Advisory 
committee on Libraries relating to the establishment of a net-work 
of libraries throughout the country should be implemented. (2) 
School libraries should be integrated in the system of Public 
libraries and be stocked with reading material of appeal both to 
children and neo-literates. (3) The libraries should be dynamic 
and set out to educate and attract the adults to use them. 

(5) Role of Universities: (1) The Universities in India 
should assume larger responsibility for educating 

(i) Establishing departments of Adults Educatio ( j 
University (did), (ii) Helping in 

looms cultural values and community life. (2) In order to have 
an efficient machinery for launching 

education programmes each university should establish a Board 

126 Kothari Commission 

of Adult Education with representatives from all departments 
concerning adult education programmes. (3) Universities should 
be financed and equipped for carrying out the adult education 

(6) Organization and Administration : (1) A National Board 
of Education representing all relevant Ministries and agencies 
should be established, (ij To advise Governments at the Centre 
and in the States, on all matters relating to informal adult edu- 
cation and training and to draw up plans and programmes for 
their consideration, (ii) To promote the establishment, where 
needed, of agencies and services for the production of literature 
and other teaching material and for coveted training programmes, 
(iii) To ensure co-ordination among different Ministries and 
official agencies, (iv) To review from time to time the progress 
made and to formulate suggestions for change and improvement, 
(v) To promote research, investigation and evaluation. (2) Volun- 
tary agencies working in the field of the adult education should 
be given every encouragement, financial and technical. 

The Commission has laid much emphasis on all aspects of 
adult education. The Commission is of the opinion that illiteracy 
should be eradicated from the country. The Commission has 
given a new approach of ‘life-long education’ In the words of 
the Commission — “Education does not end with schooling but it 
is a life long process. The adult today has need of an under- 
standing of the rapidly changing world and the growing complexi- 
ties of society. Even those who have had the most sophisticated 
education must continue to learn the alternative is obsolescence. ’ 

Liquidation of iliteracy is an objective, stated by the Com- 
mission. T. A. Koshy opined — “There may be many programmes 
to achieve this objective. Similarly ‘role of universities in adult 
education’ can hardly be termed a “programme.” Organization 
and administration are not programmes, though they are necessary 
for the implementation of “an effective programme” of adult 

The slow rate of growth in literacy that did not keep up with 
the population increase and resulted in an increase in actual 

1. The Commission’s Report, p. 422. , , 

2. T. A. Koshy— ‘The Education Commission and Adult Education 
NIE Journal Vol. II, November, 1966, Page 68. 

Adult Education . 127 

number of illiterates from year to year, is because of the fact that 
the programmes were not implemented sincerely, x x x The 
Commission has done a service to the nation by according adult 
education the place it deserves in the nation's educational system. 
The cost involved in implementing the recommendations of the 
Commission has not been taken into account. Unless the country 
knows what investment is to be made in adult education and 
whether the necessary funds would be available or not, it is diffi- 
cult to say to what extent the recommendations of the Commis- 
sion can be implemented. One thing, however, is clear. A 
developing country like India can ill-afford to neglect adult edu- 
cation at this critical point in the nation’s life.^ 

India is passing through the process of social change. This 
age is known as transitional period of the nation. To fill the 
vacuum, it is necessary to get literate every person of the country. 
Adult education has been considered in great details. This problem 
has two aspects in India as compared with other advanced coun- 
tries. Liquidation of illiteracy is one aspect and education of the 
literates is another aspect. There is a strange paradox in the 
progress of education during the last 20 years in the field of literacy. 
The total number of illiterate persons has increased during the last 
10 years although the percentage of literacy has slightly improved. 
This phenomenon is due to the fact that constant additions are 
being made to the ranks of illiterates owing to the rise in popula- 
tion. The task for education is two fold-(i) To educate the existing 
illiterates, (ii) and to prevent the addition of new illiterates to their 
ranks. A nationwide campaign is necessary for this purpose. The 
Commission feels that there should be a Central Board of Adult 
Education and Literacy which should be in-charge of liquidating 
the nation’s Illiteracy during the next 10 years. It has suggested 
that percentage of literacy should rise to 30 during the next 5 years 
and to 80 during the next 10 years and the end of 15 years the 
nation should be able to achieve complete literacy for the age group 
15 to 30. During the last 30 years there have been attempts of 
liquidating illiteracy but they have been isolated, sporadic and un- 
coordinated, and consquently no substantial progress has been 
made although a slight increase in the percentage of literates has 
been achieved. The nation ought to take this matter very seriously, 
especially the leaders who are incharge of the aflfairs of the nation. 
All the resources of the nation in manpower, material, equipment 

1. op. cit. 

128 Kothari Commission 

and funds should be utilised for eradicating illiteracy during the 
next 15 years. Employers of factories should co-operate with the 
workers in providing them teachers, courses, text books and tests. 
Every school, college and university should be a centre of literacy 
education. Even the universities should devote some attention to 
this aspect of work. From the history of a similar movement 
carried on in Russia 30 years ago, it is proved that an all-out 
campaign against illiteracy by the whole nation will certainly result 
in wiping out this stigma of the nation. Literacy is needed out for 
its own sake. It is essential for the improvement of the individual 
and for the economic progress of the nation. It is calculated that 
in a force of 100 workers about 60 to 70 persons are illiterate. 
The consequent effect on production can well be imagined. It is 
impossible to carry on economic, social of political progress in a 
democracy without a literate population.^ 

Government’s efforts : 

Our Government took various important decisions to promote 
adult education. It has decided to start two important centres in 
Bombay and Delhi. They provide education to industrial and 
potential workers. To start with, about 300 persons are expected 
to attend the course. Organised by the Department of Adult 
Education of the National Council of Educational Research and 
Training, these two centres are being run on project basis. Based 
on the expenditure, the department will open 10 similar centres 
all over the country. UNESCO has given assistance worth 
Rs, 20,000 for the centres at Delhi and Bombay. These centres 
provide an integrated and continuing system of basic and develop- 
ment education to workers or prospective workers, who have had 
little opportunity for education and growth. They collaborate with 
local agencies working for education of workers, factories, social 
organizations and trade unions. 

The course at these centres, of four months duration, cover 
reading and writing, simple arithmetic, citizenship, aspects of 
life, health and sanitation, general science, elementary history, 
geography and general knowledge. Vocational training is also 
given. The Commission attaches greater value to educating every 
child, young and old person, women etc. so that they may share 
the responsibility of national development. 

1. Dr. G. S. Khair — ‘The Education Commission. Some Outstanding 
Features.’ The Progress of Education, Vol. XLL No. 5 December 1966, page 

In this chapter the Commission has dealt with the problems 
of Educational Administration. There are various problems in 
the way to achieve our aims. Apart from teaching, adminis- 
trative side is also important and needs improvement. 

(1) Planning— (1) There has been an over-emphasis on the 
achievement of target in enrolment and expenditure and there is, 
therefore, a need to take a more comprehensive view and evolve 
a broader pattern of goals, especially those relating to qualitative 
improvement. (2) There should be concentration on a few crucial 
programmes. (3) In the existing situation where financial re- 
sources are very limited, programmes which call for a determined 
effort organisation, talent and hard-work rather than large finan- 
cial investment, need greater emphasis'. (4) There should be 
deep involvement of the universities, professional organisation, 
training colleges, etc., in a periodical evaluation of all major 
programmes included in the Plans and in the development of a 
large research programme. (5) The Ministry of Education, in 
collaboration with the Asian Institute of Educational Planning in 
different States should conduct intensive courses for training the 
personnel involved in the planning process at different levels. 
(6) The UGC should also consider the possibility of setting up 
an Advanced Centre for Studies in Educational Planning, Admini- 
stration and Finance. (7) The Process of educational planning 
in a Federal democracy has to be the right blend of centralization 
in the appropriate sectors and especially in administration. One 
useful suggestion which can be made in this context is to adopt a 
system of priorities at different levels — national, state and local. 
(8) School education is predominantly a local-state partnership 
and higher education is a Centre-State partnership. It is the 
basic principle that should guide the evaluation of the delicate 

130 Kothari Commission 

balance between centralization and decentralization which our 
planning needs. 

(2) The Role of Private Enterprise — (1) The future role of 
private enterprise in education should broadly be on the following 
principles — (i) As most private enterprise has played an impor- 
tant role in the development of education in modern India, the 
state should make all possible use of the assistance that can come 
from the private sector for the development of education, (ii) The 
State has now rightly assumed full responsibility to provide all 
the needed educational facilities and private enterprise can, there- 
fore, have only a limited and minor role. 

(3) The Role of Local Authorities : The normal practice 
should be that local authority gets the right to administer edu- 
cation as a privilege subject to two conditions— good administra- 
ation and promoting the cause of education— and that this privi- 
lege would be withdrawn if any of these conditions is violated. The 
future role of local bodies in education may be defined as 

1. As an ultimate objective, it is essential that schools and 
their local communities should be intimately associated 
in the educational process. 

2. It would, however, not be proper to press for the univer- 
sal and immediate adoption of this principle without refe- 
rence to local conditions. 

3. The immediate goal in this respect, and this should be 
adopted immediately as a national policy in all the States, 
is to associate the local communities, namely Village 
Panchayat in rural area.s, with their local schools and to 
make them responsible for the provision of all the non- 
teachers costs with the help, where, necessary of a suitable 
grant-in-aid from the State. 

4. The ultimate goal to be reached is the establishment, at 
the district level of a competent local educational autho- 
rity which may be designated as the District School 
Board which would be in-charge of all education in the 
district below the university level. This should also be 
accepted as national policy. 

5. In all associations of the local authorities with education, 
adequate safeguards should be provided to ensure that 
the teachers are not harassed and that they do not get 
involve in local factions and politics. 

Educational Administration 131 

(4) District and Municipal Boards — (1) The jurisdiction of 
the District School Board should cover the entire area of the 
district with one exception, namely, the big municipalities should 
be represented by educationists and concerned Departments. A 
senior officer of the State Government should be the whole-time 
Secretary of this Board, which should be provided with the 
necessary administrative and supervisory staff. (2) The function 
of this Board, would cover all school education in the district — 
general as well as vocational. It will directly administer all 
Government and local authority schools with the district, and 
will also remain in charge of giving grant in aid to all private 
institutions in the district in accordance with the rules framed by 
the State Government for the purpose. (3) It should be a res- 
ponsibility of the Board to prepare plans for the development of 
school-education within the district and it should also be the 
principal agency within the district to develop school education, 
the finances and guidance required for the purpose being provided 
by the State Government and the State Education Department. 
(4) In big towns with a population of one lakh or more, it would 
be desirable to establish Municipal School Board on the above 
lines, since there would be liable administrative units. The com- 
position, powers and responsibilities of these Boards should be 
similar to those of District School Boards. (5) Each School 
Board will maintain an education fund. The Zila Parishads or 
Municipalities will approve the budget of School Boards. They 
will also raise the resources expected of them and credit them to 
the School Board. In all day to-day administration, the School 
Board would be autonomous. The same relation would hold 
good between a Municipal School Board and its Municipality. 
(6) Recruitments and transfers will be done by special committee 
consisting of the Chairman of the Board, its Secretary and District 
Education Officer, subject to rules framed by the State Govern- 
ment, the general policy being to reduce transfers to the minimum 
and to allow teachers to develop loyalties to individual institu- 
tions. (7) It may be better in some cases not to burden the 
school boards with full administrative responsibility all at once. 
Powers may be conferred on a board as it becomes experienced 
shows its capacity to exercise them. 

(2) The Role of Central Government— (1) Besides institutions 
in the scientific and technical sector, it is also necessary for the 

132 Kothari Commission 

Centre to establish institutions specializing in social sciences 
including pedagogical sciences and humanities. These should be 
established in close association with the universities as an inte- 
gral part of the University system, (2) The Centre can also 
develop education in the Union Territories, particularly in Delhi, 
to serve as a pace setter for other areas. (3) The Centre should 
scout for talent in different fields and make the services of the 
best people in the country available to the State Governments 
for advice and assistance in all matters. (4) Funds for specific 
special programmes in the educational sector within the state 
plans may not be earmarked. The total allocation for education, 
however, should not be altered without the approval of the 
Planning Commission, but within it, the State Governments 
should be free to use funds as their disci iption. (5) Considerable 
importance should be attached to the expansion of the Central 
and the Centrally sponsored sector. It is through this mechanism 
that the Centre will be able to stimulate and guide educational 
development in the national interest in crucial sector. (6) Educa- 
tion should not be fragmented keeping one part in the concurrent 
and the other in the State list. In a vast country like ours the 
position given to education in the constitution is probably the 
best because it provides for a Central leadership of a stimulating 
but non-coercive character. The greatest need is for elasticity 
and freedom to experiment. (7) An intensive effort should be 
made to exploit fully the existing provision of the Constitution 
for the development of education of a national educational policy. 
The problem may then be reviewed again after ten years. 

(6) Ministry of Education — (1) The present practice of 
giving the post of Secretary to the Government of India to an 
eminent educationist, who is designated as Educational Adviser 
to the Government of India and Secretary to the Ministry of 
Education should continue. This should be a selection post and 
selection should be made from amongest all persons available, 
official, non-official, lES, universitymen, etc. It should be a 
tenure post given only for six years in the first instance, with an 
extension in exceptional cases for three or four years but not 
renewable further. (2) About half the posts of additional or joint 
Secretaries should be filled by promotion from officers seconded 
from the State Education Departments and the remaining half 
should be filled from eminent educationists and outstanding 

Educational Administration 133 

teachers in universities and schools. The term of each tenure 
should be five years to be renewable at the most for a second 
term. (3) The clearing house function of the Ministry of Educa- 
tion need considerable strengthening and expansion. A well- 
staffed Division should be created to perform this function on an 
adequate scale. (4) The Ministry of Education may set up a 
Committee to examine the various types to studies required and 
to prepare a programme for action. (5) It is a major responsi- 
bility of the Ministry of Education to maintain a good satistical 
service for educational planning, policy making and evaluation. 
In order that this function, may be discharged properly, the 
Statistical Section of Ministry should be reorganised and streng- 
thended along the lines recommended. The stafistical units of the 
State Departments of Education will have to be reorganised and 
strengthened likewise. (6) The Central Advisory Board of Edu- 
cation with its standing Committees should be functionally 

(7) National Council of Educational Research and Training : 
(1) The NCERT should be developed as the principal 
technical agency functioning at the national level for the improve- 
ment of school education; operating through and in collaboration 
with the National Board of School Education, State Departments 
Education and their technical agencies like the State Institutes 
of Education. (2) The Governing Body of the NCERT should 
have an all India character with a majority of non-officials. It 
is desirable to have at least one outstanding teacher from secon- 
dary schools and a person specialising in primary education, 
preferably a primary scoool teacher. (3) The Council should 
have its own full-time Dierctor and Joint Director. The Director 
should be an eminent educationist in the field and his status 
should be that of a Vice-Chancellor. His terms of office should 
be five years, renewable for not more than one term. The Joint 
Director would be needed mainly for the purpose of assisting 
the Director and relieving him of routine administrative matters. 
(4) The Central Institute of Education under the NCERT, 
should be transferred to Delhi University. (5) It is desirable 
that there should be considerable interchange and flow of officers 
from NCERT to the State Education Departments and Vice- 

(8) Educational Adminisiration at the State Level— (-) It is 

134 Kotliari Commission 

desirable to create at the State level, some machinery to cO-or- 
dinate educational programmes which are spread over a number 
of departments and take a unified view for planning and develop- 
ment. (2) A Statutory Council of Education should be created 
at the state level with the State Minister for Education as the 
Chairman. Its membership should include representatives of 
universities in the State, all Directors incharge of different 
sectors of education and some eminent educationists. Its prin- 
cipal functions would to be advise the State Government on all 
matters relating to school education, to review educational 
developments in the State and do conduct education of pro- 
grammes from time to time through suitable agencies. Its annual 
report along with its recommendations should be presented to 
the State Legislature. (3) A standing Committee at the 
officer’s level which would include all State level officers- 
in-charge of different sectors of education should meet periodi- 
cally under the chairmanship of Educational Secretary. (4) The 
Educational Secretary also, like the Educational Adviser of the 
Government of India, should be an educational rather than 
administrative officers. It will be desirable to make this appoint- 
ment a tenure post. (5) The role of the Education-Secretariat 
should be to examine educational problems from the adminis- 
trative and financial point of view and in the wider context of 
government policies of development. It should give the weigh- 
tage in the views of Directorate in technical matters and assist 
the Director to function as the effective head of the Depart- 

(9) Indian Educational Service : (I. E. S.)— (1) Indian Edu- 
cational Service should be service agency to teaching and 
research and should consist of person who have teaching ex- 
perience with the possibility of the educational administration 
returning to teaching and the teacher going over to administration 
at least on a tenure assignment. Its method of recruitment 
should be as follows, (i) Only one-third of the posts should be 
filled by direct recruitment at the level of the junior scale. Even 
these selected persons should not be placed directly in adminis- 
tration. Their first assignments for a minimum period of 
2-3 years should be in teaching, and it is only after this 
initiation, that they should be assigned to administration, 
(ii) The remaining two thirds of the posts would be filled partly 

Educational Administration 135 

by direct recruitment and partly by promotion and the level of 
senior and higher scale, (iii) Some posts of the lES should be 
available for being filled by tenure appointments of teachers for 
specified periods. In the same way, some posts in teaching and 
research should also be available of tenure appointments for 
persons from the lES. (2) As there are insuperable difficulties 
the idea of creating a teaching wing in the lES should be aban- 
doned. The service should encader only the post of Directors 
and officers of the Directorate, District Education Officers and 
Headmasters of higher secondary schools in the State, and at the 
Centre, Education Officers of the Ministry of Education and 
other Ministries and Education Departments of Union territories. 

(3) An adequate number of post comparable to the higher scales 
of pay in the lES should be created in the universities and colleges 
to prevent drain of latent from teaching and research to adminis- 
tration. (4) It should be a convention that only about 50% of the 
lES officers are assigned to their own State and there should also 
be a possibility of inter-State transfers fin addition to deputation 
to the Centre). To facilitate this each member of lES should be 
required to study and pass, within a given time after recruitment, 
a test in two languages : Hindi and one more Indian language 
(which is not his mother tongue) to certain prescribed efficiency. 

(10) State Educational Service-(l) There should be an ade- 
quate number of posts at higher levels, namely, in class I and 
class II. The Secretaries of the District School Boards should be 
in class I. The District Eduction Inspectors (will be in the lES) 
should have adequate assistance from officers of class I and 
class II status. In order to attract talented persons, recruitment 
is needed at three levels : Assistant Teachers’ Level : Class 11 
Level (50%) for freshers and 50% for promotjon. (_) A major 
reform now needed is to recognize the State Education Depart- 
ments where necessary on the basis of specialized functionaries 
to make adequate arrangements for their specialised training with 
the help of the universities. (3) To reduce anomalies in the 
salaries of the departmental staff and transferability, it is proposed 
that-(i) the scale of pay in the teaching and the administrative 

wings should be identical, (ii) the scale °i ^ r 

mental staff should be correlated with the UGC scales of pay for 

university teachers. 

(11) Training of Educational Administators—(l) The State 

136 Kodiari Commission 

Institutes of Education, in collaboration with universities where 
necessary, should organise in the service educational programmes 
of all the non-gazetted staff on the administrative inspectional 
side. In addition, they should also organize conferences, seminars 
and workshops for the gazetted staff. (2) The old practice of 
giving furlough leave to administrators for undertaking special 
studies in educational problems should be revised. (3) Some 
incentives should be provided for the officers who improve their 
qualifications, materially through programmes of in-service 

(12) National Staff College of Educational Administrators— 
The Ministry of Education should establish a National Staff 
College of Educational Administrators. It should provide in- 
service education for all senior officers in the Educational 
Service — lES and State Educational Services. It should conduct 
two type of courses : a longish induction course for new recruits 
and shorter courses of three to six weeks for officers in-service, 
It should have a research wing for conducting studies in problems 
of educational administration and function as a clearing house of 
administrative procedures and practice in the States and Union 
Territories. It should also conduct periodical conferences, 
seminars and work-shops on matters relating to educational 

(13) Educational Departments — The present position in 
most of the States is that Education Departments are under- 
staffed because the growth of the departmental staff doest not 
precede but follows the growth in the number of educational 
institutions ; the norms, fixing the number of officers required are 
not even if fixed observed in practice, the expenditure increasing 
the departmental staff always has a low priority. The reversal of 
these policies is necessary subject to one reservation, viz. it is 
better to have a power officer at a higher level and on adequate 
scales of pay than a large number of officers at the lower level. 

(14) Procedure : There should be a change in the altitudes 
of administrators who should cultivate an openness of mind and 
a spirit of enquiry rather than a rule of the thumb approach 
which tries to stick to the established practices even when they 
cease to be meaningful. (2) The practice of holding periodical 
reviews say, every three or five years of important administrative 
practicies with a view to chopping of dead wood and putting in 

Educational Administration \y1 

fresh grafts where necessary should be established. (3) Inter- 
sevice contracts should be built up and comparative studies in 
different States practices in all administrative matters should be 
encouraged. Periodical comparative studies in educational 
administration which would involve the State Educational Depart- 
ments should be made closely. (4) The evolution of the technique 
of detailed programming of the plan projects and the training of 
officers in them, in the State Institutes of Educational Adminis- 
trators. (5) The modern ‘officer-oriented’ system where most of 
the work will be done by the officers at their own level with the 
help of a small secretariat staff should be adopted. 

(15) Education Act : (1) Education should be given a 
statutory basis every where and Education Acts should be passed 
in the States and Union Territories. There should be comprehen- 
sive and consolidated measures which will replace all the 

miscellanceous laws which now exist and which will also provide 
sive and consolidated measures which will replace all the 

a statutory basis for certain important aspects of administration 
(e. g., grant-in-aid Code) which now exists merely in the form of 
executive orders. (2) The Government of India should issue a 
statement on the national policy in education which should 
provide guidance to the State Government and the local autho- 
rities in preparing and implementing educational plans in their 
areas. (3) The possibilities of passing a National Education Act 
may also be examined. 


The Commission has laid due emphasis on the proper 
planning of our educational system. It has rightly considered, 
the decentralization and centralization of education. 

(1) Educational Planning on District Basis Favoured— The 
Education Commission is coverted that educational planning 
will have to be reoriented on district basis rather than State basis. 
This conclusion is drawn by the Commission after a survey of 
education in the country. 

A district wise planning is inevitable due to the wide im- 
balance that now exists from district to district in the develop- 
ment of education. ^ r , 

Thesurvery points out that against the target of enrolment 

of 142 per thousand at the lower primary stage (age group of 
6-10) there is a wide spectrum of achievement even at the State 
level, where the variations range in respect total enrolment of 

l38 Kotliari Comraissioil 

from 55 in Rajasthan to 140 in Kerala. The same is the case of 
girls whose enrolment ranges from 23 in Rajasthan to 130 in 
Kerala. The variations between districts are even larger and wider. 
So, it is a good suggestion and it would lead to the reformation of 
examination and educational pattern. 

(2) Educational Administration — The Commission has 
suggested various new steps to be followed for reform in educa- 
tional administration. There should be proper co-ordination 
between the Ministry of Education and the teachers. Similar 
should be the case at the State level also. Local Authorities, 
District Education Boards and State Boards of Education should 
plan education according to the local needs. Proper look-after 
should be made in private enterprise because it plays an important 
role in spreading education all over the country. National Educa- 
tion Board should work as a link and National Staff College for 
Educational Administrators should be established to train the 
gazetted and non-gazetted oflScers, 

(3) Indian Educational Service and State Educational Service : 
The Commission has proposed to start Indian Educational Service 
and State Education Service. This is a good suggestion is to be 
followed. But according to V. V. John^ — “While the Home Mini- 
stry in pursuance of a Rajai Sabha resolution continues hopefully 
to correspond with State Governments about the formation of an 
Indian Educational Service, indications are that the project has 
been killed by apathy or hostlitity from several quarters. It is 
profitable to identify the nature of this opposition, for it has a 
bearing on our attitudes to raising the quality of our education. 

There is a certain lack of candour in the Education Com- 
mission’s recommendation relating to the formation of an Indian 
Educational Service. It has now been disclosed that if the Govern- 
ment had not already committed themselves to the formation of 
such a Service, the Commission would not have made any recom- 
mendation in the matter. One keeps wishing the Commission had 
a mind of its own. Its lack of conviction is evident in the tepid 
tones of the recommendation and in the fact that the Report 
contradicts itself in the process. 

On one page of their Report, the Commission sees ‘insupera- 
ble difficulties’ in including teaching posts in the lES cadre. But 
on an other page they seem to see the absurdity of an educational 

1 . V. V. John — ‘Who killed the I. E. S.’ Hindustan Times. 24. 2. 67, 

Bducationai Administration l39 

Service that has no teachers and suggest that the young recruits 
should not be placed straightway in administrative positions with- 
out acquiring some teaching experience. Apparently, two or three 
years of teaching experience would last the educational bureau- 
crats lifetime. If we take the Commission’s recommendations 
seriously, what we shall evolve, despite their suggestion that there 
should be a periodical intake of mature personnel from the univer- 
sities and other sources of recruitment, would be an inferior IAS 
in charge of educational administrators. 

The Home Ministry does not share this view of how the 
Service should be constituted. There has been a progressive evo- 
luation in the Ministry’s conception of the service and it could 
do with some further evaluation. In the beginning, it was concei- 
ved of as a cadre of educational administrators. When the matter 
was discussed at a conference of Chief Secretaries of the States 
five years ago at least two of them spoke up vehemently for the 
inclusion of teaching posts in the cadre. The States thereupon 
were given the freedom to include teaching posts in their own 
cadre of the lES. 

The present thinking in the Ministry is that a certain per- 
centage of the cadre could be ‘on deputation’ to teaching. A pure 
teaching cadre, it is feared, would be resented by the rest of the 
teaching community as the imposition of a new ‘higher caste’ 
Such resentment is a pure invention of the bureaucratic imagi- 
nation. The resentment is against the present situation in our 
education departments, under which no teacher can thrive unless 
he gives up teaching and takes to administration. 

If the dream, now shattered, had come true, the arrange- 
ment would have been that no lES man stayed permanently in 
administration, but returned to teaching after five or six years 
of administration. The objection that a person who has been 
away from the classroom and the laboratory that long would 
find himself out of touch with his former academic pursuits, 
and would be unable to pick up the threads, is queer, for it 
discloses an image of the educational administrators which is 
highly uncomplimentry. We surely do not want a whole tribe 
of educational administrators who have lost touch with academic 
work, and would be at serious loss if they returned to the 


The project trafiBc between the classroom and the admmis- 

i40 Kothari Commission 

trative office would have ensured healthy developments in our 
education. It may be that the keen teacher and scholar may have 
no use for administrative positions. It would be well to leave such 
spirit alone. But there are in the academic community many 
capable ‘organization men’ whose extra academic talents could be 
judiciously utilized in educational administration. The lES could 
have a use for both types. 

But the prospect of such facilities have now vanished. One 
of the states has now informed the Home Ministry that it wishes 
to encadre only three posts in theJIES, namely the State’s Director 
of Education and two Joint Directors. Another State which had 
earlier pleaded for a teaching cadre in the IBS, has now opted 
out of the whole scheme on the ground of financial exigencies. 
Such exigencies do not seem to stand in the way of the State 
joining an all-India service in forestry, engineering or medecine’. 
Yet another State wanted only residents of the State to be recrui- 
ted to its cadre of the lES, and lest it be accused of provincialism, 
has explained that with the switch-over to regional languages as 
the medium of instruction even in higer education, persons from 
other linguistic area will not be able to do effective educational 
work in that State. 

This argument is being used by other States too. Obviously 
no one takes three language formula seriously. It would also 
seem inconcevible that recruits to the Educational Service could 
be expected to acquire a reasonable proficiency in an Indian 
language other than their mother tongue. Such utter lack of faith 
in our linguistic prowess is of recent origin and is perhaps justified 
by the slowing down of the pace of language studies in our schools 
and colleges. But we do not want to reverse this disastrous 
trend ? 

We seem, meanwhile, to have forgotten the reasons for 
which the project of an Indian Educational Service was originally 
taken up. One reason was to attract into educationl work 
capable young men who otherwise seek jobs in business or to the 
administrative services. The other and more serious consideration 
was that an Indian Educational Service a teaching elite lable to 
transfer from one State to another, or what someone fancifully 
called India’s ‘wandering scholars’ — would make a contribution 
to national integration. This teaching elite whom the State would 
share in common was what the National Integration Committee 

Educational Administration 141 

had in mind when it suggested the formation of the service, and 
when the Chief Ministers’ Conference endorsed the idea in 1961. 

That was a time when we thought of education and the world 
of learning — as providing the soundest basis on which the unity 
of our nation could be built. The growing tendency towards 
fragmentation in several of political and administrative decisions, 
would now seem to be receiving support from the field of educa- 
tion too. Our educational careerists in the different States do not 
find the establishment of an all India cardre, an advantage to 
themselves. A certain type of political lader also finds such a 
service an embarrassment and a hindrance to the pursuit of 
parochial policies. And no professional organization of educators 
seem to be alive or powerful enough to warn the country of the 
grave error we are making. 

Educational Finance 


Our education is not fulfilling its aims properly due to ill- 
management and finance. Kothari Commission suggests a radical 
change in the out-look of disbursing and allotment of grant-in aid 
system. The Commission also suggests the importance of locality 
and demands, the local contribution for the development of 
education according to local needs. It holds the opinion that the 
preparation of a tentative scheme and budget by the Central and 
State Governments is necessary for the proper development of 
education. The Commission, therefore, deserves the credit for 
suggesting the wayout. 


(1) Total Expenditure on Education : If education is to 
develop adequately, educational expenditure in the next 20 years 
should raise from Rs. 12 per capita in 1965-66 to Rs. 54 in 1985- 
86 (at constant prices). This implies that the educational expen- 
diture : which increased from Rs. 1, 114 millions in 1950-51 
to Rs. 6000 millions in 1965-66, will further rise to Rs. 40364 
millions in 1985-86 and that the proportion of GNP allocated 
to education will raise from 2‘9% in 1965 to 6‘0% in 1985-86. 

(2) Allocation of Funds : While the broad pattern of 
educational expenditure in different sectors of education during the 
next two or three decades will be to devote two-thirds of the 
available resources to school education and one third to higher 
education, the relative emphasis on programmes should change 
from decade to decade as follows — 

1. From 1965 to 1975 the relative emphasis should be on a 
larger expenditure at the school stage. This wilt be 
necessary in order to : (i) upgrade the salaries of school 
teachers, (ii) transfer the UPC and the Intermediate 
classes from University to the school stage, (iii) provide 
at least five years of effective education to all children, 
and (iv) vocationalize secondary education. 

Educational Finance 143 

2. The programme to be emphasized during the decade 
1975 to 1985 will include the provision of seven years of 
effective primary education, the addition of one year to 
the school stage and vocationalization of secondary 
education. During this decade emphasis should be begin 
to shift in favour of higher education. 

3. After 1985, there will be increased emphasis on the deve- 
lopment of higher education and research. 

(3) Sources of Educational Finance : (1) Although most of 
the responsibility for the support of education will be placed on 
governmental funds, a total centralization of all financial respon- 
sibility for education in the Government will not be desirable. 
Attempt should therefore be made to raise contributions from 
local communities, voluntary organisations and the local author- 
ities for this purpose. (2) The assistance of the local community 
should be mobilized through the organisation of school improve- 
ment conferences for improving the physical facilities in schools 
and the creation of school funds. (3) In order to provide financial 
support to District School Boards, Zila Parishads should raise 
funds for education by levying cess on land revenue. The state 
should prescribe the minimum rate of the levy and authorize the 
Zila Parishads to raise it to a certain prescribed maximum. In 
order to stimulate the collection of funds the Government should 
give grant in-aid proportionate to the additional revenues thus 
collected by Zila Parishads. 

(4) Grant-in-aid to Zila Parishads ; (1) The system of grant- 
in-aid from the State Govt, to Zila Parishads should be refor- 
med on the following lines— (i) 100% grant for salaries and all- 
owances of teachers and other administrative and supervisory 
staff sanctioned by the Government. Definite norms regarding 
the number of teachers required and the administrative and super- 
visory staff needed should be fixed, (ii) For non teacher costs, a 
block grant per child in attendance should be given. The amount 
of this grant should be fixed separately for each category of 
schools and should be revised after 3 to 5 years, (iii) The resources 
raised locally by a Zila Parishad as well as the State grant thereon 
should be left with the Zila Parishad for such development 
programmes it deems necessary, (iv) Grant-in-aid for non-recurr- 
ing expenditure should be given separately, preferably at about- 
two-thirds of the expenditure. 

144 Kothari Commission 

2. The amount of grant-in-aid given by the Government to 
ZiJa Parishads should be allowed to be funded and not 
made to lapse at the end of the financial year. 

(5) Grant-in-aid to Municipalities . (1) It should be made 
obligatory for the Municipalities to bear a certain proportion of 
the cost of education. For this purpose of Governmental grants, 
the Municipalities should be classified into groups on the basis 
of their wealth and the poorer Municipalities should be given 
grant-in-aid at a higher rate than others, (3) All Corporations 
should be made responsible for supporting at least primary edu- 
cation within their jurisdiction. The Government grant to them 
should be on a proportional basis so that the corporations contri- 
bute a certain percentage of the expenditure from their own funds. 

(6) The Role of the Centre : The Central Government should 
assume a larger financial responsibility for education by expan- 
ding the Central and Centrally sponsored sectors. It should have 
the following characteristics : 

1 . It should include programmes of crucial importance and 
national in character. 

2. In the Centrally sponsored sector, it should be possible 
for some programmes to vary from State to State accord- 
ing their needs. 

3. Central-assistance for programmes in the Centrally 
sponsored sector should be given for five years which 
may in certain cases be continued upto 10 yerrs and not 
for plan periods as at present. 

(7) Economics and Utilization : Even with the mobilization 
of maximum resources for education, the funds will still be inade- 
quate to meet even the minimum needs of educational reconstruc- 
tion, if conventional techniques involving large wastage and 
stagnation continue. -It would, therefore, be necessary to adopt 
measures for economy, eradication of wastage and most efficient 
utilisation of funds. These and all other measures, which promote 
economy consistent with efficiency should be adopted. 

(8) Research : Studies conducted in some other countries 
indicate the importance of education for economic growth, but 
such studies have not been conducted in India so far. In view of 
the importance of the subject, the UGC should encourage studies 
on the subject to be conducted in a few universities. 

Educational Finance 145 


The Commission wants an increase of 4} times in the per 
capita expenditure on education during the next 20 years, it is 
'‘absolutely indispensible if a break through is to be made in educa- 
tional development in the first instance and the total national 
developmeiit in the long rimfi 

The increase of per capita income is this — 

First Plan ... Rs. 3‘20 

Third Plan ... Rs. 12T0 

It should be raised — 

Fourth Plan ... Rs. 17‘30 

Fifth Plan ... Rs. 24-70 

By lb>85-86 ... Rs. 54-00 

“Then it would be possible to go even beyond it by making a 
more strenuous effort to reduce the birth-rate or to increase the 
rate of economic growth”, says the Commission. 

(1) Rate of Increase in Educational Expenditure^ : As the 
price line is going high, our expenditure is also increasing. We 
have realised the importance of education. 

A 10% annual increase in expenditure taking the total to 
Rs. 966 crores in 1970-71, Rs. 1,156 crores in 1975-76 and to 
4,036 crores in 1985-86 has been envisaged. 

The expenditure in terms of the pecentage of National 
income is proposed to be raised from 2’9% in 1665-66 to 3-4% in 
1970-71 and 6% in 1985-86. 

In advance countries per capita expenditure on education is 

like this — 


France ... Rs- 

U. S. S. R. ... Rs. 378 

Britain ... Rs. 515 

U. S. A. ... Rs- R175 

(2) Use of Funds : The Commisson is of the opinion that 
there should be a rational use of educational funds. According 
to the Commission -“We can’t help feeling that even at the level 
of expenditure that has already been reached, the overall picture 
of educational develo pment would have been much better if a 

1 J C Agarwal Major Recommendations of Education Commission 

Page 159—161. 

146 Kothari Commission 

dilTcrcnt pattern of investment has been adopted or an alternative 
set of priorities accepted or the intensity of ultilisation has been 

The Commission wants to make a pattern of investment 
which varies in every decade. Accordingly — (i) Emphasis should 
be laid on a larger investment at the school stage, mainly because 
it would be necessary to upgrade the salaries of school teachers, 
(ii) Emphasis will have to be placed on adding one year to the 
school stage and vocationalizing education, (iii) Programmes at 
secondary stage would be nearing completion and the emphasis 
would shift very largely to the development of higher educatio; 
and research. 

(3) Education in Fourth Plan : We have set our targets quit 
high and therefore, the fourth Plan provision of Rs. 1,260 crore 
has been fixed for programme designed to bring about qualitativ( 
improvement in education without overlooking the need o 
expansion at certain levels. 

According to the annual report of the Ministry of Educatioi 
for 1965-66, the enrolment drive would be intensified at the middl( 
stage to ensure that the percentage of school going children in thi 
age group 6-11 and 11-14 would go up from 28’5 and 33’4 at th( 
end of the Third Plan to 93’1 and 47’4 respectively by 1970-71 
The total number of students in schools and colleges in the countrj 
in 1965-66 totalled 6’90 million, according to the report.^ 

Paucity of funds as a result of emergency has to a reductior 
in the number of scholarships. It will now be possible to give onlj 
1,150 additional rewards instead of 2,650. Similar is the position 
with loan scholarships which are reduced from 29,600 to 18,OOC 

The total outlay of Rs. 1,260 crores for education in fourth 
Plan was distributed as follows — 

(1) Elementary Education ... Rs. 398'50 Crores. 

(2) Secondary Education ... Rs. 27917 Crores. 

(3) University Education ... Rs. 132’45 Crores. 

(4) Scholarships ... Rs. 55 00 Crores. 

(5) Social Education ... Rs. 7100 Crores. 

(6) Technical Education ... Rs. 250 00 Crores. 

(7) Culture and Others ... Rs. 71 00 Crores. ^ 

I, Hindustan Times— Dated April 18, 1967, 

Educational Finance 147 

Fourth Plan targets aimed at additional enrolment of 19 milion 
children in the age group 6-11 and eight milion in the age group 
11-14, while in the case of higher education a target of 5 Lakhs 
had been fixed. No new university was proposed to be established. 

In 5th Plan a budget of Rs. 1,732 crores was provided and it 
was not worthwhile to meet the demand of the day. 

The above mentioned figures and statements have produced a 
comparative study with the recommendations of the Commission. 


A Every society that values social justice and is anxious 
to improve the lost of the common man and cultivate 
all available talent, must ensure progressive equality 
of opportunity to all sections of the population. This 
is the only guarantee for the building up of our egali- 
tarrian and human society in which the exploitation of 
the weak will be minimized. 

A Education is a three fold process of imparting know- 
ledge, developing skills and inculcating proper inte- 
rests, attitudes and values. 

A Education does not end with schooling but it is a life 
long process. 



, National Education Commission was set up for reviewing the 
structure of national education system in 1964. This Commission 
was headed by the then U. G. C. chairman Dr. D. S. Kothari. 
It feels the need for the national policy on education. It was a 
pity on the part of the Indian Government that she did not feel 
the necessity of a national system of education. For the first time 
in 1967, a committee^ of members of parliament was set-up to 
frame the national policy on education in order to follow the path 
of national development so that we can pace together with the 
other countries of the world. 

Following were the terms of reference before the com- 

(1) To consider the report of the Education Commission. 

(2'j To prepare a draft statement on the National Policy on 
Education for the Consideration of the Govt, of India. 

(3) To indentify a programme for immediate action. 

Following were the members of the committee ; 

Dr. Triguna Sen (Chairman), Prof Sher Singh, Bhagwat Jha 
‘Azad,’ R. K. Amin, K Anbazhagan, Dr, Anup Singh, A. E. T. 
Barrow, A. K. Chandra, T. Chengalvarayan, V. M. Chordia, 
Dinkar Desai, Digvijai Nath, R. R. Diwakar. S. N. Dewedi, S. M. 
Joshi, Smt. Kamla Kumari, D. M. Kedaria, M. R, Krishan, 
Balraj Madhok, Hiren Mukerjee, Tarkeshwar pande, Dayabhai 
V. Patel, Sadiq Ali, Anant Tripathi Sharma, Smt. Savitri Shyam, 
Ganga Sharan Sinha, S. K. Vaishampayen. 

The draft committee^ kept following considerations in mind 

with drafting the report. 

1. The Committee was set upon 5th April 1967. 

2. The names of the members of draft committee are given below 
Ganga Sharan Sinha ^Chairman), R. K. Amin. K. Anbazihgan. 

Barrow, R.D. Bhandari, Dinker Desai, Hiren Mukerjee, .i O'.n 

Mandhok, D. C. Sharma. Dayabhai Patel, J. P. Naik (Scen’rao) 



1 52 Kothari Commission 

(1) This Committee has not accepted the Commission’s 
recommendations for the creation of five or six ‘major’ 
universities or for upgrading iQ percent of the institutions 
and offer special additional assistance, on the basis of 
proper criteria, to those institutions which show high 
level performance and promise. 

(2) This committee has placed a greater emphasis on expan- 
sion of facilities at school stage. 

(3) This committee has not yet favoured several recommen- 
dations of the commission whose main objective was to 
create certain new administrative structures of change 
in existing ones. 


1. Education is a powerful instrument of national develop- 
ment — social, economic and cultural. The highest prior- 
ity should therefore be accorded to the development 
of a national system of education which will — 

(i) accelerate the transformation of the existing social 
system into a new one based on the principles of 
justice, equality, liberty and dignity of the individual, 
enshrined in the Constitution of India ; 

(ii) provide adequate and equal opportunity to every 
child and help him to develop his personality to its 
fullest ; 

(iii) make the rising generation conscious of the funda- 
mental unity of the country in the midst of her rich 
diversity, proud of her cultural heritage and confi- 
dent of her great future ; and 

(iv) emphasize science and technology and the cultivation 
of moral; social and spiritual values. 

(i) Transformation of the Educational System : 

2. From this point of view, the most important and urgent 
reform needed is to transform the existing system of 
education in order to strengthen national unity, promote 
social integration, accelerate economic growth and gene- 
rate moral, social and spiritual values^ 

1. The auther is grateful to the Govt, of India, for reproducing the text of 
the national policy on education. 

National Policy on Education 153 

(1) Strengthening National Unity ; 

3. Education should deepen national consciousness, pro- 
mote a proper understanding and appreciation of our 
cultural heritage and inspire a faith and confidence in the 
great future which we can forge for ourselves. These 
objectives should be achieved by a carefully planned study 
of India languages, literature, philosophy and history 
and by introducing students to India’s achievements in the 
positive sciences, architecture, sculpture, painting, music, 
dance and drama. 

4. All students should be given appropriate courses in 
citizenship which emphasize the fundamental unity of 
India in the midst of her rich diversity. These should 
include a study of the Freedom Struggle, the Constitution, 
the noble principles enshrined in its preamble and the 
problems and programmes of national development. 

5. National and social service, including participation in 
meaningful and challenging programmes of community 
service or national reconstruction, should be made an 
integral part of education at all stages ; and suitable 
projects for this purpose should be designed and carried 
out in the context of local conditions and available 

6. Efforts should be made to promote greater knowledge, 
understanding and appreciation of the different regions of 
India by including their study in the curricula ; by the 
exchange of students and teachers and by giving them 
opportunities and facilities for educational and study 
tours ; and by the maintenance of all-India institutions 
which bring together students from different regions. 

7. Curricular and co-curricular programmes should include 
the study of humanism based on mutual appreciation of 
international cultural values and the growing solidarity 
of mankind. 

(2) The Neighbourhood School : 

8. To strengthen social unity and to provide equality of 
opportunity to the less advanced section ol the society, 
the unhealthy social segregation that now takes place 
between the schools for the rich and those for the poor 
should be ended ; and the primary schools should be 

154 Kothari Comraissiori 

made the common schools of the nation by making it 
obligatory on all children, irrespective of caste, creed, 
community, religion, economic condition or social status, 
to attend the primary school in their neighbourhood. 
This sharing of life among the children of all social strata 
will strengthen the sense of being one nation which is an 
essential ingredient of good education. Moreover, the 
establishment of neighbourhood schools will induce the 
rich, privileged and powerful classes to take an active 
interest in the system of public education and thereby 
bring about its early improvement. In implementing the 
programme, the rights of linguistic minorities should not 
be adversely affected, and the transition to the new pattern 
should be carefully planned and implemented with a view 
to improving amenities and standards all school.^ 

(3) Adoption of Indian Languages as Media of Education at All 
Stages : 

9. The development of a proper language policy can assist 
in strengthening national unity. The key programme will 
be to develop all India languages and to adopt them as 
media of education at all stages. Unless this is done, 
the creative energies of the people will not be released, 
standards of education will not spread to the people, and 
the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses will 
continue to widen. This change-over should be brought 
about in five years. Adequate resources should be made 
available for this programme and the willing and 
enthusiastic cooperation of the academic community 
should be secured. In implementing this reform, the 
following important points will have to be kept in view ; 

(i) All-India institutions (i.e., those which admit stu- 
dents from all region of the country) should use 
Hindi and English as media of education having 
regard to the needs of students. Admissions to 
these institutions should be so planned that students 
educated through any Indian language are no t any 

]. Shri Dinkar Desai and Shri S. N. Dwivedy are not sure whether under 
our Constitution, parents can be compelled to send their children to any 
particular school and suggest that this aspect of the neighbourhood school 
may be examined by Government, 

National Policy on Education 155 

disadvantage. In addition, all such institutions 
should maintain special departments which will 
provide intensive course to the newly admitted 
students in Hindi/English to enable them to follow 
with ease the education given to them. 

(ii) The work of devising scientific and technical termi- 
nology should be expeditiously completed. This 
terminology should be adopted/adapted in all Indian 

(iii) Steps should be taken side to ensure that students 
who have been educated through the medium of 
Indian languages are not deprived to opportunities 
of good employment. These would include the 
adoption of Indian languages for all administrative 
purposes in the States and their use in the UPSC 

(iv) Adequate safeguards should be provided for ling- 
uistic minorities. 

(v) A large scale programme for the production of 
necessary literature in all Indian languages should be 
developed. This should be i.rnplemented mainly 
through the universities but should be centrally 
planned, coordinated and financed. The objective 
should be to produce, within five years, most of the 
text books required for this programme in all sub- 
jects and at all levels. 

(vi) Suitable sefeguards should be devised to prevent any 
lowering of standards during the process of change 
over. In fact, the desirability and success of the 
change should be judged in terms of the contribu- 
tion it makes to rising the quality of education. But 
caution should not be equated to delay or inaction. 

It it meaningful only if it is part of a policy of deter- 
mined, deliberate and vigorous action. 

(4) The Teaching of Languages : 

10. For the teaching of languages, the following principles 

should kept in view ; 

(i) Classes I-X : The parent has a right to claim pri- 
mary education in the mother tongue of his child. 
Every effort should be made to meet this demand. 

1 56 Kothari Commission 

At the secondary stage, the regional language should 
ordinarily be the medium of education. Adequate 
safeguard should be provided for linguistic minorities. 

Only one language, viz, the medium of education, 
should ordinarily be studied in the first substage of 
school education covering four or five years. Facilities 
should be provided, on an optional basis, for the study 
of regional language when it does not happen to be 
medium of education. A second language should be 
introduced, on a compulsory basis, ordinarily at the 
biginning of the next substage. This may perferably be a 
language included in Schedule VIII of the Constitution, 
or English or any other language. The study of this 
language should be continued till the end of class X. A 
pupil may begin the study, at his option, of any 
third language, ordinarily from class VIII, provided 
that a pupil who has has not studied either Hindi or 
English in the earlier classes shall be under an obli- 
gation to study one of these two languages at this 
sub-stage. However, it is desirable that a pupil should 
before he complete his school education, acquire some 
knowledge of three languages — regional language, 
mother tongue, Hindi, and English or any other 

(ii) C/ass XI — XII : At this sub-stage a pupil shall study 
at least one language of his choice in addition 
to the medium of education. 

(Hi) University Stage ; While facilities to study languages 
on an optional basis, should be adequately provided 
at the university stage, the study of no language 
should be made compulsory unless such study is as 
essential part of a prescribed course. 

(5) Hindi the Link Language ; 

11. In practice, Hindi is already largely in use as a link 
language for the country. The educational system 
should contribute to the acceleration of this process 
in order to facilities the movement of students and 
teachers and to strengthen national unity. The special 
emphasis on the study of Hindi is also justified on 
account of the fact that it will become the sole official 

National Policy on Education 157 

language in the future when the non-Hindi areas accept 
it as such. It is also recognized as one of the official 
languages of UNESCO, signifying its importance as one 
of the major languages of wide dissemination in the 

6. Sanskrit : 

12. India has a special responsibility for the promotion of 
Sanskrit. Facilities for its teaching at the school stage 
should be provided on a liberal scale and its study 
encouraged. Where possible, composite courses of 
Sanskrit and the regional languages should be provided. 
A more important programme is to ensure its wide 
study at the collegiate stage. For this purpose, new 
methods of teaching should be evolved to enable college 
students to acquire an adequate and quick command of 
language, even though they may not have studied it at 
school. Universities should also examine the desir- 
ability of including a study of Sanskrit in those courses 
at the first and second degree where such knowledge 
is essential (e.g., courses in certain modern Indian 
languages, ancient Indian history, Indology, Indian 
philosophy.) The traditional system of Sanskrit learning 
should be encouraged. 

(7) Science Education and Research : 

13. With a view to accelerating economic growth, science 
education and research should be developed on a prioity 
basis. Science and mathematics should be an integral 
part of general education till the end of class X, the 
quality of science teaching should be improved at all 
stages and scientific research should be promoted, 
particularly in the universities, and related closely to 
the development of agriculture and industry. In order 
that the Government of India should have competent, 
impartial and objective advice on science research policy, 
the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet should 
include, not only the heads of major agencies concerned 
with scientific research but also economists, social 
scientists, industrialists and distinguished persons from 
public life, including social workers. The Committee 
Siould carry out, from time to time, objective studies of 

158 Kothari Commission 

the investments made in scientific research and the 
results obtained. 

8. Education for Agriculture and Industry ; 

14. Great emphasis should be placed on the development 
of education for agriculture and industry) The basic 
purpose of education for agriculture is to increase agri- 
cultural production by improving the competence of 
farmer and, to that end, to promote agricultural research 
and to train personnel needed for research, training and 
extension. In each State there should be at least one 
agricultural university which will develop integrated 
programmes of research, extension and training, and 
where necessary, strong agricultural faculties should be 
established in other universities. Agricultural polyte- 
chnics providing different courses needed for agricultural 
or agro-industrial development should be established. 
There is urgent need, in rural areas, for suitable centres 
or institutions providing extension services to farmers 
and giving part-time intensive courses to young persons 
who have left school and taken to agriculture. 

15. In technical education, programmes of qualitative im- 
provement should be stressed. Practical training in 
industry should form an integral part of the various 
courses. The existing institutions for the education of 
engineers should be consolidated and strengthened with 
special emphasis on the provision of project work to 
be done by the students who should also be initiated 
into the methodology of research by diversifying the 
courses and offering suitable electives. Technicians 
should be given a better status in industry and in society; 
and institutions situated in industrial complexes should 
be involved intimately in their training and should 
specially strive to organize sandwich and part-time 
courses. Both technical education and research should 
be related closely to industry, encouraging the flow of 
personnel both ways and continuous co operation in the 
provision, design and periodical review of training pro- 
grammes and facilities. Government should give all 
encouragement and assistance to industry for starting 
research and training programmes within the industry. 

National Policy of Education 159 

(9) Work-Experience . 

16. Yet another means of relating education to productivity 
is to include work experience which may be defined as 
participation in productive work in school, in the home, 
in a workshop, in factory, on a farm, or in any other 
productive situation, as an integral part of general edu- 
cation at the school stage. This work with hands will 
help the young to develop insight into productive pro- 
cesses and use of science and inculcate in them respect 
for manual labour and habits of hard and responsible 


(10) Character-Formation : 

17. The formation of character should receive due emphasis 
in the total process of education. It is true that edu- 
cation alone cannot promote the appropriate moral, 
social and spiritual values which are generated by 
several institutions and organs of society. It must how- 
ever contribute significantly to the moulding outlook 
and values of the youth and the strengthening of its 
moral fibre. The quality of reading materials, the 
stress on the proper study of the humanities and the 
sciences, including the study of the great universal 
religions, the rendering of social service to the commu- 
nity, and participation in games and sports and hobbies, 
will contribute to the formation of right attitudes and 
values. Above ail, the example set by teachers and 
elders will be decisive. Due attention should therefore 
be paid to those factors and activities in educational 
planning at all levels. 


18. In spite of the rapid educational expansion achieved 
during the last twenty years, the existing facilities fall far 
short of national needs and expectations. Expansions 
will therefore have to continue and even accelerated 
at the school stage with a view to equalizing educational 


(Ill Per-Priniarv Education : , . , 

19. Later at.entioD needs to be paid to the development 
of p,e-prin,ary education. Voluntary organ, zat.ons eon- 

160 Kothari Commission 

dueling pre-primary institutions should receive encourge- 
ment and financial assistance, especially when they are 
working in rural areas, urban slums, or for children of 
the weaker sections of the community. Every encourage- 
ment should be given to experimentation, particularly 
in devising less costly methods of expansion. 

(12) Primary Education : 

20. The provision of good and effective primary education, 
on a free and compulsory basis, is the foundation of 
democracy and national development. It should be given 
the highest priority and implementation in two stages. 
In the first stage, universal education should be provided 
for all children till they reach the age of eleven years , 
and the second, this age-limit should be raised to four- 
teen years. 

21. Primary education should be made immediately free in 
all parts of the country and facilities for it should be 
universalized within five years, i. e., a primary school 
should be available within a working distance from the 
home of every child. Intensive efforts should be made 
to enrol girls and children from the weaker sections of 
the community through parental education and incen- 
tives. Strenuous efforts should be made to reduce 
wastage and stagnation and to ensure that every child 
enrolled in schools passes regularly from class to class 
and remains in school till he completes the primary 
course. Success in this, will depend upon the extent to 
which facilities are provided for pre-primary education, 
the qualitative improvement of primary schools, the 
adoption of the ungraded system^ in classes I and II 
(and if possible, even in classes I-IV) and the provision 
of facilities for part-time education for all children who 
cannot attend schools on a full-time basis. 

22. The unfinished task in those which are poorer and 
more backward, at the State level, special assistance 
should therefore be made available to under-developed 
areas for the expansion and impro vement of primar)^ 

1. In this system, classes I-II will be treated as one unit and there "ill 
be no detention at the end of the first year. 

National Policy on Education 161 

education and the Government of India should make 
special assistance available to the less advanced States. 
(13) The Ten-Year School : 

23. It will be advantageous to have a broadly uniform edu- 
cational structure in all parts of the country. The first 
step is to create the Ten-Year School providing a 
common pattern of general education for all children. 
The standard to be reached at the end of this stage 
should be broadly similar to that which is now reached 
at the secondary school-leaving certificate examination. 
The division of this stage into sub-stages— lower pri- 
mary, higher primary, higher primary and lower 
secondary— should not be rigid and should allow for 
variations necessitated by local condition. 

24. There should be a common course of general education 
for all students at this stage. This will include language 
(s), science and mathematics, social studies (which at 
later stage' will be studied as separate disciplines of 
geography, history and civics), work-experience, social 
or national service, physical and health education and 
education in moral and social values. There should also 
be no essential differentiation between the curricula for 

boys and girls. 

25 The national policy should be ultimately to make this 
’ period of ten years (which includes the primary and the 
lower secondary stages) free and compulsory for all 
children. This will be achieved m stages, beginning 
with making lower secondary education tuition-free and 
providing facilities for it in all areas. A large proportion 
of students who complete the primary course will proceed 
further to lower secondary education. But for tho.e ■..ho 
leave school at the end of the primary stage and eWe 
o learn some vocational skills, suitable course, of 
■ durations-from one to three ee 

provided, both on full-time and part time c^sis. 

1 ) Higher Secondary Education : 

26. The next stage in the educational structu^re i- ' 
secondary (or the pre-un.vers.i> )■ _ The 

academic course at this stage shou.u 

: n c : 

162 Kothari Commission 

to two years in all parts of the country under a phased 
plan. The curriculum should include two languages, 
three subjects selected from a prescribed list, work-exper- 
ience and social service, physical and health education, 
and education in moral and social values. It is desirable 
to treat this stage as a part of school education and to 
entrust its academic control to a single authority in each 
State on which the universities should have adequate 
representation. As a transitional measure, the attach- 
ment of these classes to colleges may be continued 
wherever necessary. 

27. The duration of the vocational courses at this stage 
should vary according to their objectives (1-3 years). 
They should cover a large number of fields such as agri- 
culture, industry trade and commerce, and public health, 
home management, arts and crafts education, secretarial 
training, etc. Their organization should be elastic, allow- 
ing for full-time and correspondence courses and a 
large variety of institutional arrangements. The enrol- 
ment in vocational courses should be substantially in- 
creased to cover ultimately about half the total enrol- 
ment at the higher secondary stage. 

28. Education at this stage should be largely terminal so that 
a majority of students who complete class XII enter diff- 
erent walks of life From this point of view, the recruit- 
ment to the lower administrative services and posts 
should ultimately be made from amongst those who have 
completed the higher secondary stage and recruitment of 
graduates to these posts should be discourged by prescri- 
bing a lower age for appointment. It is desirable to 
select the personnel even for the superior posts under 
Government or in the public sector at the end of the 
higher secondary stage itself and then train them further 
at State expense. 

(15) Higher Education : 

29. The duration of the courses for the first degree in arts, 
commerce and science should be three years after the 
higher secondary stage. Where this is only two years at 
present, a phased programme should be prepared for the 
introduction of the longer course. 

National Policy on Education 163 

30. Immediate and effective steps should be taken to reorga- 
nize courses and to revise and upgrade curricula at the 
university stage. The link between the subject taken at 
the school stage and those at the first degree should be 
less rigid and combinations of subjects permissible for 
the first and the second degrees should be more elastic 
than is generally the case at present. Special efi’orts are 
also needed to promote inter-disciplinary studies. 

31. The universities should define the conditions for eligi- 
bility for admission to different courses at the undergra- 
duate stage, ineligible student being allowed to re-appear 
at the relevant examination to earn eligibility. Similarly, 
the number of full-time students to be admitted to each 
college or department of a university should be deter- 
mined with reference to teachers and facilities available. 
Adequate resources should however be provided to 
ensure that all eligible students who desire to study fur- 
ther get admission to higher education ; and in order to 
secure social justice, some allowance should be made 
for the environmental handicaps of students from rural 
areas, from urban slums and from the weaker sections of 
the community. Facilities for study through morning 
or evening colleges and correspondence courses should be 
provided on a liberal scale. At the postgraduate stage, 
the selection for admission should be rigorous. 

(16) Part-Time and Own-Time Education : 

32 Part-time and own-time education should be developed 
on a large scale at every stages and in all sectors and 
given the same status as full time education. These 
facilities will smoothen the transition from school to 
work, reduce the cost of education to the State, and pro- 
vide opportunities to the large number of persons who 
desire to educate themselves further but cannot afford 
to do so on a full time basis. In particular, greater 
emphasis has to be laid on the development of corres- 
pondence courses not only for university students, but 
also for secondary school students, for teachers, for agri- 
cultural, industrial and other workers ; and facilities 
should be available, both to men and women, to study 
privately and appear at the various examinations con- 
ducted by the boards of education and the universities. 

164 Kothari Commission 

ill) Spread of Literacy and Adult Education : 

33. The liquidation of mass illiteracy is essential, not only 
for accelerating programmes of production, especially in 
agriculture, but for quickening the tempo of national 
development in general. Plans to accelerate the spread of 
literacy should therefore be prepared and intensively 
implemented on several fronts. With a view to reducing 
new additions to the ranks of adult illiterates, part-time 
literacy classes should be organized for grown-up children 
(age group 11-17) who did not attend school to have 
lapsed into illiteracy. All employees in large commercial 
industrial and other concerns should be made function- 
ally literate within a prescribed period of their employ- 
ment and a lead in this direction should be given by the 
industrial plants in public sector. Similarly, teachers, 
students and educational institutions should be actively 
involved in literacy campaigns, especially as a part of 
the social or national service programme. The achieve- 
ment of literacy should be the provision of attractive 
reading materials and library services to the new 

34. Adult or continuing education should be developed 
through facilities for part-time or own-time education 
and through the expansion and improvement of library 
services, educational broadcasting and television. The 
development of extension services in universities is of 
great significance in this context. In particular, the 
universities should organize special extension programmes 
to train rural leadership. 

(18) Education of Girls ; 

35. In the post- independence period, the enrolment of girls, 
as well as the number of women teachers, his increased 
rapidly at all stages of education ; and in most areas of 
study, girls have shown remarkable achievements and 
proved that they are at least equal to, if no better than, 
the boys. But in spite of all that has been done, there is 
still a wide gap in the enrolment of boys and girls at all 
stages. It is necessary to eliminate this gap at the primary 
stage, and to narrow it at the other stages. The education 

National Policy on Education 1 65 

of girls should therefore receive special emphasis and 
the funds required for its advancement should be provided 
on a priority basis. Suitable measures for speedy 
implementation should be devised, particularly taking 
into acount the needs of the rural areas. The appoint- 
ment of women teachers should be encouraged at all 
stages and especially at the primary stage. 

(19) Education of the Weaker Sections of the Community : 

36. In spite of the increasing attention given, since indepen- 
dence, to the education of the weaker section of the 
community, the gap between their level of educational 
development and the average for the society as a whole 
still continued to be very wide. It is therefore necessary 
to expand and extend the existing special educational 
facilities and concessions to the scheduled castes and 
scheduled tribes including Nav-Boudlias converted from 
the scheduled castes whose social and economic condi- 
tions and position continue to remain unchanged. Special 
efforts in affording financial relief and some preference 
for admission to good institutions at all levels will be 
necessary. Care must also be taken to ensure that the 
educated persons from these classes are suitably 
employed. Untill these weaker sections catch up with 
the rest of the community, a system of reservation in 
employment opportunities would be justified. 

37 The education of the tribal people also needs more inten- 
sive efforts. Here the problems of language and sparsity 
of population become great handicaps for the spread of 
education. Special measures, analogous to those specified 
in the foregoing paragraphs are necessary, emphasis being 
placed on Ashram schools, the development of carefully 
trained cadres of workers for tribal areas, ultimately 
derived from the tribals themselves, and simultaneous 
development of programmes for their economic improve- 

AtTresent, the definition of ‘backwardness’ is based on 

birth It is necessary to change this and to define back- 
wardness' in socio-economic terms and to extend edu- 
cational concessions and assistance, similar to those now 
offered to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, to all 

166 Kothari Commission 

socially and economically handicapped persons. 

(50) Education of the Handicapped Children : 

39. The facilities for the education of the physically £ 
mentally handicapped children should be expanded ; i 
at least one good institution for the education of the bJ 
and deaf children should be established in each distr 
Every attempt should be made to develop integrated p 
grammes enabling the handicapped children to study 
regular schools. It is necessary to coordinate the acti 
ties of different agencies working in the Geld. 


40. Educational expansion which is so essential for natioi 
development and equalization of educational opportun 
should not imply any lowering of standards. On the otl 
hand, it should be accompanied by simultaneous effo 
to raise substantially the standards of education and 
keep them continually rising. At least in the crucial s< 
tors, our standards should be internationally comparab 

(21) Teachers : Status and Education : 

41. Standards in education are primarily determined by t 
quality, competence and character of teachers. It : 
therefore, necessary to make a sustained eflFort to I 
teaching profession a significant proportion of talenti 
young men and women who leave the schools and unive 
sities every year and to retain them as dedicate 
enthusiastic and contended teachers. An importai 
step in this direction will be to improve the remuneratic 
and conditions of work and service of teachers and I 
provide them with adequate opportunities of profession 
advancement. From this point of view, the followir 
are some of the important programmes to be developed 
(i) There should be minimum national scales of pay fc 

university, college and school teachers. An upwar 
revision of scales applicable to the teaching profi 
ssion in the context of general pay structure in th 
country is justified and should be carried out as soo 
as possible, and the whole position should 
reviewed periodically. In particular, the existing 
yvide gap between the salary scales for school and 

National Policy on Education 167 

university for college) teachers should be reduced : 
the principle of parity for salary and aJJownces 
should be adopted at the school stage for all teachers 
in the serv ice of government, local authorities or 
voluntary organizations. 

(ii) A uniform system of retirement benefits should be 
introduced for all public servants and teachers, the 
triple-benefit scheme (i.e., a scheme to cover pension, 
provident fund and insurance) being adopted as a 
transitional measure. Appropriate v,-elfare ser\'ices 
should also be provided on a basis of joint contri- 
bution and management by teachers and govern- 

(iii) The conditions of work and service of teachers 
should be improved and should be uniform for 
teachers under dilierent managements. Steps should 
be taken to ensure security of tenure to teachers in 
non-government service. Adequate residential faci- 
lities should be provided to teachers in non-govern- 
ment service. Adequate residential facilities should 
be provided to teachers at all stages. 

(iv) Teachers' organizations should be encouraged and 
recounized. In each State, there should be an advi- 
sory council consisting of the representatives of the 
organizations of teachers, voluntary agencies con- 
ducting educational institutions and officers of the 
Education Department. Its scope should include 
all matters relating to conditions of work and welfare 
services of school teachers and improvement of 


(v) With the uparading of remuneration, there should te 
a correspondins improvement in qualifications, 
quality and work of teachers. Adequate qualifica- 
tions, both in general and professional education, 
should be prescribed for teachers at different levels. 

The procedure for recruitment should also be 
improved and should be similar in ail institutions, 
irrespective of their managements. 

fvi) The training of school teachers should be brought 
within the broad stream of university life and the 

1 68 Kothari ComniissJon 

isolation of training institutions from the schools 
should be ended. Schools of education should be 
established in universities. Each State should 
prepare and implement, on a priority basis, a plan 
for the expansion and improvement of teacher 
education at all stages, 

(vii) The academic freedom of teachers to pursue and 
publish their studies and researches and to speak 
and write about significant national and international 
issues should be protected. Teachers should also be 
free to exercise all civic rights including the right to 
participate in elections; and when doing so, they 
should be entitled to and take leave of absence 
from their substantive posts. 

42. The improvement in the status of teachers should be 
accompanied by a corresponding deepening of their 
awareness of crucial role which they have to play in 
moulding the life and character of the rising generation 
and ultimately of the nation itself. Teachers should 
pursue learning and excellence with dedication and 
devotion, bear unstinting loyalty to their institutions and 
strive for the welfare and all-round development of the 
students entrusted to their care. Teacher’s organizations 
should evolve codes of conduct for teachers which should 
be zealously guarded by the profession itself. 

(22) New Methods of Teaching : 

43. The improvement in the quality of teachers and their pro- 
fessional preparation should help to revolutionize the 
process of education by the adoption of modern methods 
of teaching whose chief aim is to build up proper interest, 
attitudes and values and whose accent is on the dignity 
and freedom of the individual, awakening of curiosity 
and promoting love of learning habits of self-study, 
capacity to think and judge for oneself and problem- 
solving ability. This development which is the essence 
of progressive and modern education should be facilitated 
through other programmes of qualitative improvement 
such as revision and upgrading of curricula adequated 
supply of high-quality teaching and learning materials, 
examination reform, organization of a nation-wide pro- 

^^ationaI Policy On Education 169 

gramme of institutional development, provision of ade- 
quate student services and the discovery and development 
of talent. 

23) Curricula and Text-books : 

44. There is an urgent need to upgrade and improve school 
curricula, to increase their knowledge content and to 
provide adequately for the development of skills and 
the inculcation of right interests, attitudes and values. 
Similar steps are also needed at the university stage. 

45. High priority should be given to the organization of 
a rich and varied programme of co-curricular activities 
for students at all stages. Games and sports should be 
developed on a large scale, and on a priority basis, with 
the object of improving the physical fitness and sports- 
manship of the average student rather than only for 
training champions. There should be great emphasis on 
the provision of playing fields and on the fullest use of 
stadiams by educational institutions. Coaches should be 
provided in schools and colleges. Special effort should 
be made to develop hockey in which we excel, football, 
volleyball, wrestling and Indian games like Kabaddi or 
Kho Kho which cost little but provide vigorous physical 
exercise. Hiking and mountaineering need special 

46. The quality of text books should be kept at the highest 
level by attracting in the best talent available through 
a liberal policy of remuneration and by giving special 
encouragement to outstanding teachers. The Government 
of India should take immediate steps for the production 
of high-quality textbooks which may be adopted/adapted 
in the States. The State Governments should set up auto- 
nomous, corporations, functioning on commercial lines, 
for the production of textbooks. But they should not 
claim a monopoly therein and should enlist the coopera- 
tion of the private sector. In each class and for every 
subject for which a textbook is needed, there should be 
at least three or four approved books and a school should 
be free to choose the books best suited to it. 

47. It is essential that an increasing number of common 
books should be read by all school students in the 

170 itotiiari Commission 

country. For this purpose, the Government of India 
should undertake, sponsor to promote the production 
of a series of books on different topics of national inte- 
rest. These should be written by the most competent 
persons in the field, translated in all Indian languages, 
priced exactly the same in every language and made 
available in the library of every school. 

48. The expenditure that parents have to incure on textbooks 
should be kept within reasonable limits by avoiding fre- 
quent changes in textbooks, by reducing the number of 
prescribed or recommended books and by keeping their 
prices to the minimum. A careful study should be made 
of the anticipated demands for paper and printing capa- 
city during the next fifteen years and early steps should 
be taken to ensure that the production of paper and 
increase in printing capacity in the Indian languages 
keep pace with the expansion of education. 

(24) Examination Reform ; 

49. Attention should be concentrated on three major areas ; 
reduction of the dominance of external examinations ; 
the introduction of reforms which would make them 
more valid, and realistic measures of educational achieve- 
ment ; and the adoption of a good system of evaluation. 

50. At the school stage, there should be only two public 
examinations— the first at the end of class X and the 
second at the end of class XII (or class XI in the transi- 
tional period). Each State should have a Board of 
School Education (with sub- boards, where needed) to 
conduct these examination and to define the standards 
to be reached. The examination certificate should give 
the candidate’s performance in different subjects for 
which he has appeared but should not declare him to 
have passed or failed in the examination as a whole ; 
and his eligibility for admission to courses at the next 
stage should be dependent upon his performance with 
reference to the requirements prescribed for the course 
he desires to study. It should be open to a candidate 
to appear again for these examinations, either in part 
or as a whole, in order to improve his performance, 

51. It is necessary to coordinate, at the national level, the 

N'alional Policy on IZducalion 171 

standards prescribed for attainment by the State boards 
of education at tliese examinations. This should be 
established by the Government of India which should 
indicate the 'national standards* below which no State 
should ordinarily fail. The National Board should also 
make arranpement.s to evaluate the standards actually 
attained on a school. District. State and National basis. 

1. The public examinations, both at the school and uni- 
versity stape*-. should be improved by employing the 
latcM methods and techniques. The time-lag between 
the holding of the examination and the declaration of 
results should be reduced and in no ease should be longer 
than about eight weeks. The final examinations of 
school and colleges should be completed and their results 
declared within a given lime each year so that the 
students seeking admission to all-India and other impor- 
tant institution do not lose a year as often happens at 

3. A comprehensive system of internal assessment eovering 
all aspects of a student’s growth should be introduced in 
all educational institutions and should be used for impro- 
vement as well as for certifying the achievement of the 
student. These results should be kept separate and 
shown side by side in the final certificate issued after 
external examinations. Every year, a careful review 
should be made of the correlation between internal and 
external assessment separately for each institution and 
action should be taken against those which tend to over- 
assess their students. 

. Nation-Wide Programme of Institutional Improvement : 

4 A nation-wide programme for raising standards in all 
educational institutions should be developed. Each ins- 
titution should be treated as a unit by itself and helped 
to grow at its pace by preparing and implementing its 
own developmental plan. 

5 Minimum requirements should be prescribed for each 
category of institutions and an attempt should be made 
to provide these through the assistance of local commu- 
nities and an adequate system of maintenance grar^' 

l7i Kotiiari Commission 

In addition, special encouragement grants should be 
available to institutions on the basis of their perform- 
ance and promise. 

56. These attempts at institutional improvement at the 
school stage can be strengthend by creating ‘school groups’ 
for purposes of planning and development. Each school- 
group should consist of a secondary school with some 
higher primary schools within its immediate neighbour- 
hood, each higher primary schools being, in its turn, 
the centre for some lower primary schools near in. The 
immediate repsonsibilities entrusted to a school-group 
should include the sharing of facilities in common and 
the preparation and implementation of plans of educa- 
tional development, additional powers and responsibili- 
ties being given on the basis of competence and perfor- 
mance. Wherever possible, colleges should linked to 
secondary schools for similar programmes and the uni- 
versities should be encouraged and assisted to participate 
in the improvement of sehools. 

5/. In the universities, a concentration of resource— both 
human and material — is essential for raising standards. 
Each university should therefore strive to develop some 
centres of excellence within itself which could ultimately 
be raised to the status of a centre of advanced study. 
In addition, the University Grants Commission should 
strive, where the necessary potential is available, to 
create clusters of centres of advanced study in related 
disciplines which strengthen and support one another. 

58. Special steps should be taken to improve educational 
institutions in rural areas and to reduce the wide gap 
in standards that now exists between urban and rural 

(29) Students Services, Welfare and Discipline 

59. It is desirable to develop programmes of student services 
and welfare at all stages. At the primary stage, provi- 
sion should be made for free supply of textbook to all 
students, and in secondary school, textbook libraries 
should be established. Simple uniforms should be pres- 
cribed, sudsidized being available to poor and needy 
students. School meals and health services should be 
provided to the extent funds permit. School buildings 

National Policy on Education 173 

should be utilised, before and after school hours, as day 
study centres for children who do not have such facilities 
at home. 

At the university stage, te.xtbook libraries should be 
established in all colleges and university departments and 
provision should be made for low-eost or subsidized 
cafclarias and essential health services. Day-study centres 
and hostels should be provided on a liberal scale. Hostel 
costs should be kept down to the minimum and students 
should be required to partieipatc in the management and 
to practise self-help. 

At both school and university stages, private tuitions 
should be discouraged and institutional arrangements 
should be made to assist retarded and under-achieving 
students by entrusting the responsibility to teachers who 
should be suitably remunerated for the purpose or by 
devising plans in which the more advanced students 
would help the backward ones. 

In order to create a sense of responsibility and to pro- 
vide civic training, students should be associated with 
the management of their institutions in a manner suited 
to their age and maturity. At the school stage, pupil-self- 
government should be an Integral part of the institution 
in every institution. This assumes an even greater impor- 
tance at the university stage where the students have to 
be treated as adults and increasingly associated with the 
maintenance of discipline. Joint committees of teachers 
and students should be established in each university 
department and every college to serve as a forum for the 
discussion and, where possible, for the solution of 
common problems and difficulties. Students’ associations 
should also be developed on proper lines. 

It is a matter for serious concern that incidents of student 
unrest have shown a tendency to greater frequency and 
violence in recent years. The causes of this malaise are 
complex and deep-seated and an effective cure goes 
beyond the educational system. But the situation can 
be remedied considerably if the educational system is 
transformed, strengthened and made more effective - 
the broad lines indicated here, The programme 

Kothari Commission 

developing national consciousness and of involving, 
students in challenging and worthwhile projects of natio- 
nal resconsfruction and the appointment of joint commit- 
tees of teachers and students will also be great help. It 
is however essential to emphasize that violence has no 
place in any civilized society and especially in an 
academic community. If its members find it necessary to 
assert their democratic rights, it should be done in a 
peaceful, orderly and dignified manner. 

Scholarships : Discovery and Development of Talent : 

64. Both in secondary and higher education, the scholar- 
ships programme should be expanded and the amount of 
scholarships increased, broadly to cover all costs. Other 
forms of student'Which need attention are ; provision of 
transport facilities where necessary and feasible, grants 
for books and examination fees and creation of facilities 
to earn and learn. There is also need for loan scholar- 
ships at the university stage. In order to encourage good 
students to join the teaching profession however, a 
person who has received a loan scholarship should be 
entitled to a remission of onetenth of the loan for each 
year of service as a teacher. 

65. The administrative procedures for the award of scholar- 
ships should be streamlined and payments should be 
arranged promptly, preferably from month to month. 

66. At present, most scholarships are awarded on the basis of 
marks obtained in some public examination, and as these 
tend to favour students from the well-to-do homes or 
good urban schools, potentially talented students whose 
preparation has remained inadequate through no fault 
of theirs are often left out. There is thus urgent need 
to evolve a more equitable and egalitarion basis for the 
award of scholarships and grant of admission to impor* 
tant institutions of higher education. 

67. Scientific techniques should be developed, especially all 
kinds. The universities can play a useful role in this. 

In view of the importance of the subject and our own 
great traditions, special emphasis need to be placed on 
the nurturing of mathematical talent. In (he case of 
exceptionally gifted children, the State should assume 
total responsibility for their full education. The rules 
and regulations regarding courses, duration of stud ies, _ 

176 Kothari Commission 

72. The principle of autonomy should be extended within the 
university system itself. The administration of universities 
should be so organized that it becomes a service agency 
for the promotion of academic life. Wider administrative 
and financial powers should be delegated to the depart- 
ments of the universities ; and each department should 
have a committee of management consisting of pro- 
fessors and some readers and lecturers. 

(29) The Voluntary Effort in Education : 

73. Voluntary organizations have played a very important 
role in the development of education in the past. In the 
days ahead also, they can make a useful contribution at 
the secondary and university stages and within the 
framework of the neighbourhood school system, even at 
the primary stage. It should therefore be an objective of 
educational policy to encourage and to make full use of 
all assistance that can come through the voluntary efforts 
of the people. 

74. The policy of the Government towards schools conducted 
by voluntary organizations should be selective rather than 
uniform. The system of grant-in-aid should be revised, 
simplified and made more liberal. All recognised schools 
should be eligible for grant-in-aid on some egalitarian 
basis which will help them to maintain proper standards. 
In addition, there should be provision for penal cuts for 
gross failure or special grnnts for good and out-standing 

(30) The Educational Institutions Conduct by Minorities : 

75. Educational institutions conducted by minorities have a 
special place in the national system of education. 
Specified safeguards are provided in the Constitution 
under Articles 29 (1) and (2) and 30 (1) and ( 2 ) ; in 
addition, Article 350 A has been included as a special 

76. The Central and State Governmets have also indicated 
in certain resolutions and statements the administrative 
procedures which should be adopted in respect of 
minorities. Thus, the provincial Education Ministers’ 
Conference in August 1949 passed a resolution (accepted 
by the Central Advisory Board of Education and the 

National Policy On Education 177 

Government of India) which laid down detailed provi- 
sions for imparting both primary and secondary educa- 
tions to linguistic minorities through the medium of their 
mother tongue. 

77. After taking into consideration the recommendations in 
the report of the State Reorganization Commission in 
respect of linguistic minorities, the Government of Ir.di i 
in consultation with the Chief Ministers of States pre- 
pared a memorandum which was placed before both 
House of Parliament in September 1956. The mcntor.m- 
dum deals, among other things, with education ;l s.!'';- 
guards at the primary and secondary stages and t!,: 
affiliations of institutions using minority ianyua-c., h r 
purposes of examination. 

78. The administration at the Centre and in tlie State, s', ! 

not only respect the rights of minoriticN but l.e p t > 
promote their educational interests. 

(31) The Local Authorities : 


176 Kothari Commission 

72. The principle of autonomy should be extended within the 
university system itself. The administration of universities 
should be so organized that it becomes a service agency 
for the promotion of academic life. Wider administrative 
and financial powers should be delegated to the depart- 
ments of the universities ; and each department should 
have a committee of management consisting of pro- 
fessors and some readers and lecturers. 

( 29) The Voluntary Effort in Education : 

73. Voluntary organizations have played a very important 
role in the development of education in the past. In the 
days ahead also, they can make a useful contribution at 
the secondary and university stages and within the 
framework of the neighbourhood school system, even at 
the primary stage. It should therefore be an objective of 
educational policy to encourage and to make full use of 
all assistance that can come through the voluntary efforts 
of the people. 

74. The policy of the Government towards schools conducted 
by voluntary organizations should be selective rather than 
uniform. The system of grant-in-aid should be revised, 
simplified and made more liberal. All recognised schools 
should be eligible for grant-in-aid on some egalitarian 
basis which will help them to maintain proper standards. 
In addition, there should be provision for penal cuts for 
gross failure or special grnnts for good and out-standing 

(30) The Educational Institutions Conduct by Minorities : 

75. Educational institutions conducted by minorities have a 
special place in the national system of education. 
Specified safeguards are provided in the Constitution 
under Articles 29 (1) and (2) and 30 (1) and (2) ; in 
addition. Article 350 A has been included as a special 

76. The Central and State Governmets have also indicated 
in certain resolutions and statements the administrative 
procedures which should be adopted in respect of 
minorities. Thus, the provincial Education Ministers’ 
Conference in August 1949 passed a resolution (accepted 
by the Central Advisory Board of Education and the 

National Policy On Education 177 

Government of India) which laid down detailed provi- 
sions for imparting both primary and secondary educa- 
tions to linguistic minorities through the medium of their 
mother tongue. 

77. After taking into consideration the recommendations in 
the report of the State Reorganization Commission in 
respect of linguistic minorities, the Government of India 
in consultation . with the Chief Ministers of States pre- 
pared a memorandum which was , placed before both 
House of Parliament in September 1956. The memoran- 
dum deals, among other things, with educational safe- 
guards at the primary and secondary stages and the 
affiliations of institutions using minority languages, for 
purposes of examination, 

78. The administration at the Centre and in the States should 
not only respect the rights of minorities but help to 
promote their educational interests. 

(31) The Local Authorities : 

79. It is desirable to bring the school and community 
together in a programme of mutual service and support. 
The immediate plan to be adopted in all parts of the 
country is to associate the village panchayats and 
municipalities^ with the primary schools in their areas 
through the creation of local school committees. These 
committees should consist of the representatives of the 
local authorities in the area and about an equal number 
of persons interested in education. Their functions 
should be to help in improving the facilities in the 
schools under their charge and particulary to be res- 
ponsible for the non-teacher costs. Each school 
committee should have a fund of its own consisting of 
(a) amounts placed at its disposal by the municipality 
or the village panchayat in the area ; (b) donations 
and contributions voluntarily made by the parents and 
local community from ‘ time to time ; and (c) grant-in- 
aid given by the State or other appropriate authority to 

1. Where neither of these local authorities exist, parent-teacher asso- 
ciation may be formed to discharge the responsibilities proposed here for 
the school committees, 

178 Kothari Commission 

stimulate local collection on some basis of equalization. 

80. The ultimate objective should be to create specially 
constituted education boards for each district and for 
the bigger municipalities and to entrust them with the 
administration of all education at the school stage. 
Inspection and coordination should however be invaria- 
bly reserved with the Government. 

81. Local authorities associated with the administration of 
education should levy an education cess. A minimum 
cess should be obligatory and in order to stimulate the 
raising of fund, grants-in-aid should be given to match 
all levies above the minimum rates. The other grants- 
in aid to local authorities should be so designed as to 
secure equalization. In urban areas, the municipalities 
may be suitably grouped and grants so arranged the 
proper local authorities get larger assistance, In rural 
areas, the grants-in aid should include all teacher costs 
and an additional amount, on the basis of equalization, 
for other expenditure. 

(32) The Government of India : 

82. The Government of India has large responsibilities in 
education, some directly specified in the Constitution 
and others implied. The Constitution makes the Union 
Government directly responsible for the Central Univer- 
sities, for all institutions of national importance, for 
the enrichment, promotion and propagation of Hindi, 
for the coordination and maintenance of standards in 
higher education, for scientific and technological research 
and for education in international relationships which 
includes welfare of Indian students abroad and cultural 
and educational agreements with other countries. The 
vocational and technical training of labour is a concur- 
rent responsibilitity ; and so is social and economic 
planning which includes educational planning. The 
Centre also has special responsibilities for the education 
of the scheduled castes and tribes. 

83. Its indirect or implied responsibilities however are 
greater still. The first is to serve as a clearing-house 
for educational information. The annual survey of the 
development of education in the country which the 

National Policy On Education 179 

Government of India now bring out should be supple- 
mented by studies of important educational problems, 
either on a regional or a national basis. These studies 
should follow a well planned schedule and be repeated 
periodically. In addition, it is also responsibility of 
the Centre to promote the exchange of educational ex- 
perience among the States and to co-ordinate the work 
of different agencies for educational development 
functioning at the State level. 

84. Another responsibility of the Government of India is to 
provide stimulating national leadership an educational 
development. For this purpose; it should promote 
educational research,' especially in the universities. 
Financial assistance from the Centre should also be avai- 
lable, both to State Governments and voluntary organi- 
zation, for pilot projects or other experimental work of 
national significance. Professional organizations in the 
different fields, and especially national organizations of 
teachers striving for improvement of education in different 
areas, should receieve encouragement and Central assis- 
tance. The Government of India should formulate the 
National Policy on Education and revise it from time to 
time. This will provide the broad guidelines for edu- 
cational development in the States and form the basis of 
Central grants for education. 

85. Yet another responsibility of the Government of India 
is to provide financial assistance for educational develop- 
ment. It is necessary to increase the Central invest- 
ment in education very considerably and to channel it 
into three programmes. The first is to expand the Central 
sector to a very great extent for the expansion of national 
scholarships, development of agricultural, engineering 
and medical education, promotion of educational 
research and Sanskrit studies, establishment of institu- 
tions specializing in social science and humanities and 
increasing the allocations to the University Grants 
Commission for centres of advanced study, schools of 
education, postgraduate education and research, main- 
tenance grants to State universities, qualitative improve- 
ment of higher education and provision of student 

180 Kothari Commission 

services and amenities. 

86 The second programme of Central aid is to the supple- 
ment the Central sector by providing ear-marked Central 
grants to State Governments for the development of 
selected schemes of high priority. It may be desirable 
to divide the total funds available with the Government 
of India for giving ear-marked grants to State Govern- 
ment into two parts. One part should be utilized for 
giving ear-marked grants to State Governments for 
schemes of national significance (e. g., the adoption of 
Indian languages as media of education at all stages) and 
the second part should be distributed of State Govern- 
ments on some egalitarian basis and ear-marked for 
such priority schemes as would be selected by the State 
Government themselves. 

87. The funds thus allocated to ear-marked grants should 
be voted saparately by Parliament. There should be ade- 
quate machinery to see that these are utilized for the 
purpose for which they are granted and a report on their 
utilization and the results achieved should be laid 
annually before Parliament. 

88. The third programme of Central aid is that the Centre . 
and the States should annually share, in some agreed 
proportion, the total expenditure incurred on the salaries 
and allowances of teachers. This will enable the Centre 
to give effect to a national policy regulating the remun- 
eration of teachers which is so crucial to the quality of 

(33) The State Governments : 

89. Education being a State subject. State Governments will 
have to develop several important programmes to dis- 
charge their responsibility in this field effectively. 

90. They should prepare long-term and short-term plans of 
educational development in their areas within the broad 
framework of the national policy on education. 

91. They should provide a statutory basis for education by 
enacting comprehensive Education Acts which will re- 
place all the miscellaneous laws and executive orders 
(e. g., grant-aid code) which now exist. 

92. Departments of Education in the State should be 

National Policy on Education 1 81 

stregthened considerably. The administrative structure 
and procedures should be reformed to emphasize variety 
and elasticity ruther than rigidity and uniformity. The 
quality of personnel should be improved through an in- 
crease in the number of posts at the high levels, reform 
in recruitment procedures and provision of pre-service 
and in service training. The basic scales of pay in the 
administrative and teaching wings scould be made the 
same in order to make a free flow of personnel between 
teaching and administrative wings possible. 

93. A centralized educational administration may not be 
effective in many States. Besides, there are immense 
variations of educational development between the 
districts. It is therefore desirable to adopt the district 
as the principal units for educational planning, adminis- 
tration and development. The district education ofiicer 
should be given adequate status and delegation of author- 
ity, the main responsibility of the State-lavel Directorate 
being general coordination and policy. 

94. The bulk of the finances needed for educational develop- 
ment will also have to be the State Governments. At 
present, the State Governments raise 60 per cent of the 
total educational expenditure which comes to about 22 
per cent of their total resources, the individual variations 
ranging from 16 to 39 per cent. In future, the total 

educational expenditure of the State Governments will 
be much larger and may come to about one-third to 
one-half of their total resources. 

(5) A programme for IMMEDIATE ACTION 

Priorities : 

182 ivothari Commission 

of education at all stages and in all subjects in fivf 

(ii) The neighbourhood school system should be univer- 
salised at the primary stage. Primary education 
(class I- VII or VII) should be made free imme- 
diately and free books should be provided to all 
pupils. An intensive programme should be launched 
for reduction of wastage and stagnation. Good 
and effective primary education of at least five 
yeary’ duration should be provided for every child 
in all parts of the country as early as possible and 
at any rate within a period of ten years. 

(iii) The ten-year school, with a common curriculum 
of general education, school be adopted in all parts 
of the country. The new educational structure 
should be adopted as early as possible in all areas 
where the total duration of school and college edu- 
cation leading to the first degree in arts, commerce 
and science is 15 years or more. Where addition 
of an years of schooling involved, as phased pro- 
gramme should drawn up for the implementation 
of the proposal. 

(iv) Teachers’ status school be improved and the remu- 
neration of all teachers, particularly at the school 
stage should be upgraded. Programmes of teacher 
education should be improved and expanded. 

(v) Agricultural research and education at all levels' 
should be developed on a priority basis. Both 
technical education and technological research 
should be taken closer to the industry; and a better 
status in society and industry should be given to 
the technician and his training improved. 

(vi) Work-experience and national and social service 
should be introduced as an integral part of all edu- 
cation. A beginning may be made in about five 
per cent of the institutions immediately and the 
programme should be universalized in a period of 
about the years. 

(vii) Science education should be emphasized and scienti- 
fic research should be promoted. In a phased 

National policy on Education 183 

programme spread over about ten years, science 
and mathematics shoy^Id be made and integral part 
of general education till the end of class X. 

(viii) Emphasis should be . laid on the development of 
essential student service, e. g., development of pro- 
grammes of sports and games : building up of text- 
book libraries in secondary schools, colleges and 
universities, and appointment of joint committee of 
teachers and students in colleges and universities to 
deal with day-to-day problems. 

(ix) Post-graduate education and research should be 
improved and expanded. The programme of the 
centres of advanced study should be developed 
further and clusters of centres in related disciplines 
should be created wherever possible. 

(x) The provision of facilities for part-time and own- 
time education should be expanded generously 
at all stages. 

(xi) The programmes of spreading education among 
girls and the weaker sections of the community 
should be expanded. 

(xii) Intensive efforts should be made to spread literacy, 
particularly in the age group 15-25. 

(xiii) The recruitment policies of government should be 
revised to reduce the pressures on higher education, 
and the higher secondary stage of education should 
be vocation alized to divert young persons into 
different walks of life. 

(xiv) In admissions to higher education, some allowance 
should be made for the environmental handicaps of 
students coming from rural areas, urban slums and 
weaker sections of the community, and a more 
equitable and egalitarian basis should be evolved 
for the award of scholarships or grant of admission 
to important institutions of higher education. 

(xv) Programmes which need planning, organization 
and human effort rather than money, e. g., promo- 
ting national consciousness, character-formation, 
intensive utilization of existing facilities, recogniza- 

l84 Kothari Commission 

lion of courses, improvement of curricula, adoption 
of dynamic methods of teaching, examination re- 
form and improvement of text books should be 
developed in a big way and on a priority basis, 
(xvi) Emphasis should be placed on the improvement 
of educational administration and especially on the 
adoption of the district as the principal unit for 
planning, administration and development of 
education, the system of school-groups, the moderni- 
zation of the system of school supervision and the 
organization of a nation wide programme of imp- 
rovement of educational institution through 
preparation and implementation of individual plans. 

(35) Total Expenditure on Education : 

96. It will be necessary to increase considerably to total 
expendiure on education if this massive and urgent pro- 
gramme of educational development is to be implemen- 
ted. For this purpose, the best financial etfort should 
be made by all the agencies involved— the Government 
of India, the State Governments, the local authorities 
and the voluntary organizations and the support of the 
local communities should stimulated and fully utilized. 

(36) Essential Conditions for Success : 

97. Even with the maximum mobilization of resources, for 
education however, the available funds will still be inad- 
equate and for the some years to come, the development 
of education will have to be brought about under condi- 
tions of comparative scarcity. Several measures will 
to be adopted to overcome this severe handicap. For 
instance, the utmost economy should be practised in 
everything. In particular the expenditure on buildings 
should be reduced to the minimum by .using locally 
available materials and by adoption of austere and uti- 
litarian rather than ostentations standards. The cost 
of equipment also should be reduced to the utmost by 
better designing, large-scale production, improvization 
and careful handling to increase its life. Wherever 
possible, facilities should be shared in common by a 
group of schools; and when equipment becomes costly 
and sophisticated, it should be intensively and coopera- 

National Policy on Education 1 85 

tively utilized for the largest part of the day and through- 
out the year. 

Every effort should be made to utilize existing facilities 
most intensively so to obtain full return on all the 
investment made in education. The number of working 
days should be increased and the working day should be 
longer. The vacations should be adjusted to meet the 
requirements of the institution and students or to enable 
a better organization of programmes of work-experience 
or national and social service. The libraries, laboratories 
and craft sheds should be open all the year round and 
for at least eight hours day, if not longer. All educa- 
tional buildings should be put to intensive use and 
utilized even in the vacations by designing suitable co- 
curricular programmes. 

There is urgent need for the proper planning of educa- 
tional institutions to avoid overlapping and duplication 
and to create larger institutions which. tend to be less 
burdensome in cost per student. Well-considered 
criteria should be prescribed for schools of all categories 
and, their basis, careful plans of perspective educational 
development, spread over the next 10-15 years, should be 
prepared separately for each district. This becomes even 
more important in higher education which is costlier and 
where the required resources in men, money and mate- 
rials are even more scarce. It should therefore be an 
objective of policy to plan the location of colleges care- 
fully and to establish bigger affiliated colleges, exceptions 
being made only in the case of educationally under- 
developed areas or in the initial years of the life of a 
new institution. Similarly, careful coordination is 
needed in the organization of "courses, training facilities 
and research programmes in universities also. Consider- 
ble restraint is needed in establishing new universities. 
Adequate preparation should be made for the purpose, 
and the general policy should be to establish university 
centres in the first instance and to develop them into 
universities in due course. No new university should be 
started unless the consent of the University Grants 
Commission has been obtained and adequate provision 
of funds has been made. 

i86 Kothari commissioii 

100. It will also be necessary to adopt new and unorthodox 
techniques which give quick results of reduce costs. 
Emphasis should be laid on such measures as the large 
scale development of part-time and own-time education, 
the use of mass media and modern techniques, pro- 
grammed instruction and the more backward ones. 

101. Perhaps the most important measure to overcome the 
handicaps of an ‘economy of scarcity’ is to create a 
climate of dedication and sustained hard work so that 
students, teachers and administrators invest ‘themselves’ 
in their tasks to make up for the shortcomings in mate- 
rial resources. These seems to be a pervading atmos- 
phere of cynicism at present. But a developing country 
like ours cannot afford such luxuries. Idealism — for 
there is no better word — is needed in our country, now 
more than ever, in every sphere of life, and especially 
in education. The reconstruction of education thus 
present a supreme challenge to all of us who are now called 
upon ta create a system of education related to the life, 
needs and aspirations of the people and to maintain it at 
the highest level of eflBciency. It is upon our response 
to this challenge that the future of the country depends. 


A Panorama of Decade 


Ours is the country known by the name of India ; ours is the 
nationality — Indian; ours is the constitution which has a common 
goal of achieving justice — social, economic and political; freedom- 
of expression of thought, of development and availing opportu- 
nities; achievement of integration — nation, social and emotional; 
attaining the common bonds of fraternity and unity. 

Needless to say that all these ideals and goals cannot be 
achieved until and unless we do not overhaul the entire curri- 
culum, methods of teaching, rather the entire system of education 
with our national objectives in view. It is a bare truth that uni- 
formity at all standards of education to bring out a coordination 
in the prevailing system of system— which is eventually a state 
subject in the dire need of the hour. 

The Population explosion : 

There is population explosion and that has left a vacuum in 
providing, the equalization of opportunities in the realm of 
education. The ratio between the teacher and the taught is in- 
adequate. Dearth of food-grains, economic development, lack of 
employment opportunities, W'ide gap between the previledged, 
domination of the narrow loyalties under the guise of ideology, 
religion, language, state, caste, creed etc. are some of the 
hurdles which require immediate consideration with a concrete 
follow up programme if, national reconstruction is to be made 
with sincere efforts so that we may not only be able to solve the 
gignatic problems; our country is facing at present but also raise 
the status of BHARAT at intermediate level. 

Education and social change : 

Education is a powerful tool for social change. Society goes 
on under a continuous process of change. Emerson was right 

188 Kothari Commission 

when lie assisted that it is not wealth or high pillers which make 
a nation. It is really education which makes a man. Education 
can build a nation and can lead the entire nation on the path 
of progress. It is only through education that we can inculcate 
the feelings of self sacrifice, patriotism, critical and analytical 
thinking, character building etc; which may ultimately trans- 
form an individual and the society as a whole. For that we 
will have to evolve a national policy on education. History 
gives an evidence that it is only the educated elite which has 
brought a change in the sociophere. Education trains the mind 
and leads an individual towards critical thinking and anological 

Education is not something which may be discussed in an 
isolated watertight compartment; it requires aims, contents, 
teaching points, students, teacher, time-table, vocational effi- 
ciency. Keeping fnview the needs of society and the national 
objectives and e.xploitation of the man power to raise the status of 
the country in the international sphere. 

The national development has its base in economic progress 
and productivity. If we want to bring out a social change, we 
will have to touch cultural as well as economic spheres. We will 
have to see the modernization without sacrificing the gems of our 
rich cultural heritage. 

Education and Productivity : 

Only a handful elite dominate all walks of the public life. 
This control is due to the ignorance of the people. Previledged 
always rule over unpreviledged and former have been exploiting 
them like any thing. This tendency has been widening the gap 
between haves and have nots. The social unrest caused through 
this, can only be removed if the following programmes are to be 
implemented : 

— Science as a basic component of education and culture, 

Work experience as an integral part of general education, 

especially at the secondary school level to meet the needs 
of industry, agriculture and trade; and— improvement of 
scientific and technological education and research at the 
university stage with special emphasis on agriculture and 
allied sciences. 

As far the question of the adoption of science along with the 
culture, Bharat is following the same from times immemorial. It is 

A Panorama or Decade 189 

only ignorance which is giving impetus to the technology based 
on experience rather than science. Work experience is a system 
which provide opportunities for the self emdloyment and prepare 
a man for the job in his future and present. That is why commi- 
ssion visualised for vocationalization of secondary education. 
Social and national integration : 

There is a lot of diversity in our country. Language, pro- 
vincialism, factionalism, regionalism, religion have been dis- 
turbing the nation’s peace and order. National integration can 
only be achieved through cultural and moral integration. This 
needs stability in character. For this following programmes 
should be implemented : 

— introducing a common school system of public education. 

— making social and national service an integral part of 
education at all stages. 

— developing all modern Indian languages and taking neces- 
sary steps to enrich Hindi as quickly as possible so that it 
is able to function effectively as the official language of the 
union, and 

— promoting national consiousness. 

Modernization and education : 

We can breath in a traditional society but we can’t live the 
life in it in the sense of term. In the fast running world, there 
is always struggle for existence. We can exist only when we go a 
head by maintaining the progress of science and teconology. 
‘Indian society of today is heir to a great culture. Unfortunately, 
however, it is not an adequately educated society and unless it 
becomes one, it will not be able to modernize itself and to res- 
pond appropriately to new challanges of national reconstruction 
or take its rightful place in country of nations’. The commission 
says. For achieving this aim the establishment of six major 
universities has been recommended. 

Social, moral and spiritual values : 

Modernization does not mean that the social moral and 
spiritual values be neglected and not given due importance. It is 
the age of conflict of culture, materialism and ethical values. . It 
is the conflict between discerning and nondiscerning, between 
values, pattern and concepts and man is missing his path. 

Now, education should be accepted as a powerful means of 
social revolution. There should be radical change in education. We 

190 Kothari Commission 

need qualify but along with aetion. There should be close co- 
orditiafion of plan and execution. We have to go, rather rush 
with the world in this race. It is a challenge, but who will accept 
it you, he or I — Legislative members, students, teachers. Govern- 
ment, public— who. Who will decide this fate ? 


‘India’s destiny is being shaped in her class rooms’. Kothari 
Commission started his report with this statement. It has pre- 
pared 20 years Educational Plan. Commission visualises educa- 
tion as a continuous process. National development was the 
main aim of this commission which was based on complete 
centralisation having faith in decentralization. In this educa- 
tional plan private incentive has totally been ignored. Thus 
through the educational plan we could not prepare such a struc- 
ture which would be enable to make ‘Man’ in real sense. The 
proposed frame work has justified to reconstruct a mecha- 
nism but what should be achieved, it was lost. The fact is that 
the current of concious education which was a hand maid to 
make ‘Man’ has disappeared. 

Western thinkers believe in mind or intelligence while Indian 
thinkers believe in the existence of soul. Soul is super concious, 
immortal and indestrictable which makes a man social being in 
the true sense of the term. Swami Vivekanand has rightly 
remarked — mind can not be taught any such thing which is not 
already in existence though in another form not clearly visible. 
Therefore, the development of body, mind and soul is the real 
process of education. The general tendency of man is to satisfy lust 
and lust is the indication of hedonism which lays stress on en- 
joyment. Education teaches the spirit of self-sacrifice instead of 
selfishness, social welfare instead of selfish end. A Harmonious 
development includes emotional training for which discrimination, 
imagination, introspection, analysis, comparison and the power 
to reach a logical conclusion etc., etc. which need adequate deve- 
lopment so that there may be a proper coordination among 
knowing wilting and action. 

National hedonism is the base of Kothari Commission’s 
thinking. Commission believes in material progress. Education 
is a most powerful tool for social change. Education, which is 
related with the productivity, science and technology, work 

A Panorama of Decade 191 

experience, vocationalization and industrialization can lead to- 
wards the socio economic revolution. Through achieving this end 
we may be integrated socially and nationally. We may develop 
the basic human values — social, moral and spiritual. We should 
always remember the verse of Geeta — ‘The two fold path was 
given by Me. O Sinless one, to the world in the beginning — The 
pat h oC Jcnowledge to ,the discerning, the path o f work to the 


(i) Evaluation of teachers by students® — University Vice- 
Chacellors, college principals and eminent educationists in the 
country have expressed divergent views on a suggestion that stu- 
dents in autonomous colleges should evaluate their teachers to 
find out whether the later were performing their jobs properly. 

Four workshop, organised by the University Grant Com- 
mission and attended by Vice-Chancellors, teachers, students, 
and education administrators, had recommended that “the pro- 
cess of assessment of students should be continuous and the 
students in turn may also anonymously conduct evaluation of the 
teachers with a view to assessing the efficiency of teachers in the 
teaching process. Such a feeback mechanism is necessary to 
identify weakness and deficiencies in instruction so that con- 
tinuous improvement could be effected. 

Several of the academicians, whose views were sought by 
pressmen, reacted favourably to the recommendation. Some of 
them were, in fact, very enthusiastic about it. but invariably all 
of them had certain reservations and warned that if the proposed 
innovatiod was misused it could prove disastrous. 

Calicut University’s acting Vice-Chancellor Sukumar 
Azhikode said : ‘I believe that teacher assessment by the student 
in neither a fanciful nor an ideal concept, but one that is highly 
realistic. In every classroom this goes on while a teacher is en- 
gaged in teaching. Any teacher would strive to derive the admi- 
ration, affection and regard of the student, which it the result of 

^ 3rf?Tr?T 

The Bhagwad Geeta; Swami Chidbhavanand; Sri Ram Krishna Tapo- 
vanam, Tirupparaitturai. P. 212 (1974). 

2, Hindustan Times Dated July 21. 1975. 

192 Kothari Commission 

an informal assessment’ of the teacher by the student. Most of 
the tcaclicrs arc subtly inspired by it.” 

But he warned that if this assessment is elevated into an 
administrative weapon by, which the merit of a teacher is solely or 
partly adjudged. It may prove very mischievous. Students are 
immature and easily swayed by political and social pressure, and 
assessment by such a class may lead to even victimisation of 
teachers. A teacher may be liked or disliked for many reasons, 
but it will be wrong to make students arbitrater of the professional 
destiny of teachers.” 

Right Judges’ — Dr. K. Madhavan Kuty, principal Tri- 
vandrum Medical College, welcomed the proposal of students 
assessing their teachers primarily because, as of now, there is no 
method of assessing the work of teacher, except for a degree 
“Teaching,” to put it in another way,” is one profession that 
does not require a licence.” 

Whole heartedly welcoming the proposal. Prof. O. P. Israel, 
principal of the Government Science College, and Sister Jasmine 
Marie, principal, Mount Carmel College for Women, (both in 
Bangalore) agreed that students were the right judges of their 

Prof. Israel said the proposal could be implemented by 
issuing carefully planned questionnaries to the students. 

However, they felt that teachers generally would not like to 
be evaluated by their students. 

Prof. J.B.Mallaradya, a prominent Bangalore educationist, 
says that “teachers should welcome such an evaluation in their 
own interest and those of their pupils. But, he felt that the 
process of assessment was not ordinarily within the reach of an 
ordinary student. Only a student who had himself attained a high 
standard of proficiency could tell whether a particular teacher 
was good or bad. 

Mr. A.G. Sharma, Registrar of Indore university, endorshing 
the recommendation, observes ; “This will make teachers more 
responsible towards their duties. There will be a healthier dia- 
logue and closer contact between the teachers and the taught, 
which is all four the good of the concerned parties.” 

Dr. N. K. Panikkar, Vice Chancellor of Cochin University, 
says that the idea of student evaluation of teachers is certainly 

A Panorama of Decade 193 

good, but its scope and value should be restricted to “evaluation 
of the teacher’s competence to put across or rather communicate 
to a level which is received properly by the students.’’ However, 
he conceded that it will worsen the already vitiated atmosphere 
between students and teachers. 

Mrs. Madhuri Shah, Vice-Chancellor, S.N.D.T. Women’s 
University, Bombay, favoured the idea but cautioned that “all 
this should be done in a subtle way and not in a manner which 
will run down the teachers.” 

Welcoming the recommendation. Prof. P.J.Madan, Vice- 
Chancellor of Maharaja Sayajirao University, Baroda, said : eva- 
luation should be done by the post-graduate or final year degree 
students because they were more matured and responsible. He 
pointed out that the assessment report should be kept confidential 
by the dean of the college. He said that the weakness of the 
teachers should be brought to their notice for their improvement 
and not for victimisation. The opinion of a majority of students 
should be considered and not of a small group of students, he 

Teaching ability — Osmania University Vice-Chancellor P. 
Jaganmohan Reddy feels that evaluation of teachers by students 
was not only desirable but also essential for the development of 
higher education. He flaunted a letter from a female student to 
show that the students were quite capable of assessing their 

While describing the recommendation as “not a bad idea” 
the general secretary of the West Bengal College and University 
Teachers’ Association, Calcutta. Prof. Dilip Chakrabarty said— it 
should be implemented on an experimental basis in a few selected 
colleges where only brilliant students got admission after a 
thorough screening. 

Calcutta University Vice-Chancellor Dr. Satyendra Nath Sen 
said-the opinion of the students should be taken into consideration 
but in any case it should not be the last or the only word to 
assess the performance of a teacher. 

The Bhopal University Vice-Chancellor. Dr. Ravi Prakash, 
has blessed the recommendation — “because this is the correct and 
just method. Students are the best judges of their teachers’ 
ability. It will help because those who are good, will feel 

194 Kolhari Commission 

encouraged tliat lliey have been judged rightly. Others will try to 
improve themselves.” 

While Vice-Chancellor of Jabalpur University R. S. Naidu 
favoured the recommendation, Vice-Chancellor of Jawaharlal 
Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya E.B. Rainboth disapproved it on 
the ground that ‘‘the students have neither developed the res- 
ponsibility nor the maturity for such an ‘evaluation.” 

Mr. Rainboth said the back ground appears to be that the 
present day teachers laek the responsibility to do their job. By 
large, this may not be applicable to all teachers. Quite a 
and large percentage of teachers do take their work very seriously. 
But it is not denied that there are teachers who are not worth 
their salt. Any amount of evaluation by students or otherwise 
would not ipmrove such teachers.” 

Vice-Chancellor of Rajasthan University G. C. Pandey main- 
tained that he did not favour the idea of the teachers being 
evaluated by the students. This was so, he added, because the 
majority of the students were just not in a position to judge the 
quality of the teaching. Specialy during these days when the 
student would want teaching to be simply examination-oriented 
and would try to judge a teacher only from the examination angle, 
they would prefer a teacher who could dictate notes, digesting 
^formation question-wise. 

Dr. Pandey said that idea, if implemented, would only put a 
premium on the types of teachers who indulged in politicking 
among students or fawned upon them. 

Principals of leading colleges in Bangalore also expressed 
divergent views on the proposal. 

Prof. M.P.L. Sastri, principal of M.E.S. College, Malles- 
warams strongly disapproved the proposal as he felt that the 
students, being at the receiving end, would be prejudicial in their 
assessment and would prove to be the wrong judges of teachers. 
‘Barring a few intelligent students, students, by and large, were not 
capable of evaluating teachers.’ he said. 

Prof. P.S.Ambica Devi, principal of the Government Maha- 
rani’s College said — Students generally were not mature enough to 
assess their teacher, however, the proposal could be implemented 
at the post-graduate level where students show more maturity. 

A Panorama of Decade ] 95 

Dr. M.B. Buch, Head of the Centre of Advanced Study in 
Education of the M.S. University of Baroda, expressed scepticism 
about the recommendation. He said that such a measure would 
develop a sense of “insecurity” among teachers because “we do 
not have a tradition of teachers being evaluated by students,” 

Secondly, Dr. Buch pointed out, “we do not have responsible 
students interested in higher education and hence irresponsible 
rowdies would take advantage of the scheme to bring down the 

(ii) New Education Pattern^ : 10+2+3 — The new 10 plus 2 
plus 3 education pattern is being introduced in the Union Terri- 
tory from this academic year (1975). 

The introduction of the new system has been made com- 
pulsory for all recognised and aided schools. 

Though the new pattern is being accepted not without reluc- 
tance, its introduction in Government schools, too, does not seem 
to be on a happy note. 

The general apprehension is that the whole thing is going 
to end up in a mess, not because the pattern is not good but be- 
cause the preparation for introducing the pattern is inadequate. 

There is a lot of uncertainty about the availability of books 
prescribed in the new syllabi and the adequate of the present 
teaching staff to switch over to the new pattern without the 
required orientation. 

There are three major problems in the way of the new system. 
The first is the deep rooted' suspicion among the teaching staff 
that the Administration had not given any categorical assurance 
on the absorption of the teachers rendered surplus. Everyone 
agrees that the introduction of the new pattern will make some of 
the teaching staff surplus. This is going to happen when quite a 
number of higher secondary schools will be downgraded to the 
high school level. The principals and the post-graduate teachers 
then would become surplus. The point is conceded even by the 
officials of the Education Department. 

The officials also know that the Government run higher 
secondary schools, too, would not have the capacity to absorb all 
the surplus staff. The downgranding might be avoided in the 
Governme nt schools but it could not be stopped in the aided 

1 , Hindustan Times, Dated April 11 , 1975 . 

196 Kolhari Commission 

scliools. Tlic reason for il is that the aided schools do not have 
the necessary financial potential to meet the additional eost of 
introducing the new pattern. It would involve vocational teachers, 
additional accommodation of training equipment. 

It was naturally expected that the aided schools would prefer 
down grading rather than incurring the additional heavy ex- 
penditure. The only way they could be persuaded to accept the 
new system is by promising them a 100 per cent grant for 
additional expenditure, which at present is not possible for the 

The school hurdle is the text-books. Though the National 
Councial of Educational Research and Training has promised 
to print all the required text-books, it does not seem feasible since 
already it has failed to print two Hindi books needed for the 
1976 examination. 

And the third problem is whether the present staff would 
be able to cope with the new syllabi and that the students enter- 
ing the ninth class in the new pattern would be able to bear the 
burden of the extra heavy syllabus prescribed. 

Another objection by the professional bodies of teachers is 
that it was humanly impossible to teach such a large number of 
subjects with extensive contents witin a seven-period week pres- 
cribed for each subject. The officials, however, are of the view 
that the contents of the subjects could be lightend. 

A real technical difficulty will be to evolve a time-table that 
should cater to the need of the new pattern in the ninth class 
while it also feeds the old pattern for the tenth and eleventh 
classess. Such a time-table had not been evolved so far. 

The training part of the new pattern has also come in for 
criticism. It is said that the absence of arrangements with 
factories no worth while work experience could be gained by the 
students in the school laboratories. 

(Hi) New Education Pattern Develops Peasonality^ — The pre- 
sent system of school examinations will go with the adoption of 
the new pattern to 10 years' schooling. This will also eliminate 
the high school and the higher secondary school examinations 
conducted by the respective Boards and other Central agencies. 

J. Hindustan Times. Dated August 20, 1975, 

A Panorama of Decade 197 

In its place, a new system of evaluation would be introduced. 
The main object being to fund out where the “framework” of edu- 
cation has failed, and to remedy the defect. 

This is one of the salient features of the broad national frame- 
work of education evolved at the two-day conference on school 

Another significant feature is the teaching of science and 
technology as compulsory subjects at schools. But science would 
include social sciences. The physical sciences, too, would be 
taught in a more practical way. 

Prof Rais said the basic approach was to “bring education 
near to life”. There was no doubt that the present system of edu- 
cation. suffered from social and academic maladies, and it was 
now sought to be corrected by bringing about an ‘academically 
feasible and coherent pattern so that education could serve the 
new social purpose”. 

The new broad guidelines had by and large been accepted by 
the States in principle, with the assurance that they would be 
implemented. In fact, some of the States had gone beyond the 
take-off stage,” he claimed. 

To bring about a social, human approach to education, 
it was essential to give a cultural basis to the whole system. 
Also, attention should be paid to morals and ethics. 

Equally important is the accent on work experience in the 
framework, which would aim at making children learn things. 
The idea, is to develop total personality. 

The new guidelines have adopted the three- language formula, 
mainly on the consideration that new controversies should be 

Replying to a question. Prof. Rais said the conference did 
not favour Prof. Nurul Hasan’s suggestion of a two-level syllabus 
for school education. The consensus was to have a common 
core programme, with the facility of additional courses according 

to the ability of the child. 

Prof Rais agreed that there would be practical difficulties m 
adopting' the new guidelines-finances for science education and 
good teachers for the new integrated system. He said human 
life was itself a laboratory and there 

“artificial” devices for experiments m a laboratory. The basic 

198 Kolhari Commission 

object is to bring about a “qualitative change’* in education. 

Reverting to tlie abolition of the examination system, Prof. 
Rais said the new scheme of evaluation could be introduced in 
phases spread over five years. 

Asked if NCERT would prepare text-books for the new 
system, Prof. Rais said it would supply “model material” on en- 
vironmental studies, leaving scope for detailed adoption by the 
States and educational institutions themselves. 

(iv) Studpid Assumptions^ — As for the wrong arguments ad- 
vanced, chief among them is the alleged need for natural unifor- 
mity. This, it is claimed, facilities migration of students and 
promotes national integration. We do not have to dragroon a 
whole generation in order to enable a few hundred students to. 
move from one part of the country to another. There are simpler 
expedients available, such as testing the migrating student at the 
new institution to ascertain the level of his academic proficiencies. 
Uniformity is not needed for promoting national integration 
either. If we could determine the academic capabilities expected 
of students at the three stages, (a) of leaving secondary school, 
(b) of entering the university or going into careers that need no 
university training, and (c) of obtaining there first degree, and if 
such standards were high enough to be internationally acceptable, 
we could leave regional systems, and even individual schools and 
colleges,, to achieve those standards in their own way, more effi- 
ciently and expeditiously than any national system could pres- 
cribe in terms of years spent in school and college. The unity 
promoted by keeping the agile ones back so as to keep step with 
the slow ones cannot be of any high value. 

The real case for the ten-plus-two-plus-three pattern is in the 
use of the two-year course as a means of raising our academic 
standards. The period between high school and the first degree 
course holds the key to the urgent transformation we seek in the 
quality of our education. It could be used for ; (1) correcting, 
and making up for, the deficiencies of what was done in high 
school, particulary in basic skills such as languages and mathe-, 
matics : (2) equipping students with adequate productive skills 
so as to enable them, if they so choose, to go straight into the 

1. V. V- John : Twelve Years To College. Hindustan Times. 
May 20, 1975, 

A Panorama of Decade 199 

job market; and (3) sending students up for further professional 
or academic courses at the university, so well equipped as to oblige 
the university to raise the standards of the first degree. To 
achieve this threefold objective, the two-year course will have to 
be both ambitious and flexible. Its combination of vocational 
and academic studies should enable the student to discover his 
own aptitudes and help him to choose an occupation or a course 
of further studies. It should be possible for the able student to 
do it in less than two years on the basis of the evidence of 
achievement he produces, and for the weaker student to stay 
longer, without the ignominy of failure, and acquire, at the pace 
of which he is capable, the proficiencies needed for jobs or for 
further studies. The system should also provide for the student 
to ‘stop out’ for a period, if he so chooses, involve himself in 
the world of work, and then return for further studies. At the 
end of the two-year course, there could be a choice of exami- 
nations for the students, depending on whether they seek en- 
trance into the world or employment or into professional or 
academic studies at a higher level. The certification could also 
be varied to suit different categories of students. 

It will be found by curriculum-makers and teachers that 
what is now being done in 11 years of the higher secondary 
pattern can, by pruning what is non-essential, be put into 10 
years of school, and that a great part of what is now being done 
in our three-year degree courses can be done in two years. The 
present curricula at the school and college levels are highly re- 
petitive. This is one pf the reasons why most students are able 
to do a year’s course in a month or two of intensive study before 
the annual examinations. The performance of non-collegiate 
or ‘private’ candidates at these examinations also indicates 
that the present courses need only part-time attention. One of 
the functions of the two-year course should be to expose the 
pretentious vacuity of the present first degree courses, cover a 
great part of whatever is meaningful in those courses even before 
a student enters the university, and thus compel the universities to 
design new first degree courses to replace the existing ones that 
have won such international disrepute. 

These high objectives cannot be achieved if, even as a transi- 
tional expedient, the two-year course is spilt 'nto. or... 
staying with high schools and the other being attached to college. 

200 Kotliari Commission 

Tims migln educational bureaucrats seek to tailor the status quo 
into seeming compliance with the new decision. Any one-plus- 
onc arrangement will prevent meaningful curricular reform at this 
crucial stage of the new pattern. We may end by taking 15 years 
to do what is now being done in 14, and could be done in much 

(v) Two Level Syllabus^ — The Union Education Minister, 
Mr. Nurul Hasan suggested to the national conference on 
school curriculum to consider seriously the possibility of in- 
troducing two level syllabus in science, mathematics and social 
sciences under the new pattern of education. 

One syllabus for these three subjects to be taught during the 
first 10 years could be for average students and the other for those 
W’bo had special apitude and who wanted to go for further study 
and research. 

He w'as not envisaging hard and division at the end of 
the 8tb standard as it existed under the old system. The two 
levels could be evolved in a manner which would enable students 
passing in syallabus A to go for B by making up deficiencies 
through some well thought out methods. 

Pointing out the drawbacks in the old system, Mr. Hasan 
said the education commission had rightly emphasised the need 
for compulsory teaching science and maths in schools. No 
country could afford to have a situation in which a few people 
acquired all the skills and the masses in general remained semi- 
skilled and unskilled workers. 

The resolution on scientific policy adopted by the Govern- 
ment long ago under the inspiration of Jawaharlal Nehru was 
still highly valuable and teachers and parents should bring this 
resolution to the notice of the younger generation, he added. 

The Minister told the authorities concerned that work ex- 
perience as envisaged under new system was not just another 
subject. It had to be designed in a manner which would promote 
production skill. It was necessary that students acquired some 
basic capacity to use modern tools like electronics, he said. 

He emphasised the need of involving the community in the 
successful implementation of the use new pattern. He also 

1 Prof. Nurul Hasan. Minister of Education, Govt of India. 
Hindustan Times. Dated August 19, 1975. 

A f*arn6rama of Decade 20l 

Suggested to the conference to consider the Possibility of evolving 
extra optional subject which could be useful to students. 

Emphasising the importance of the new pattern of education, 
the Minister said it was agreed by all since independence that 
the education system suffered from colonial and feudal outlook 
and that radical were called for. 

He also laid stress on evolving a pattern which was accep- 
table to teachers and parents in particular and the community in 

(vi) Autonomy of College : The commission recommends 
that each university should recognise the freedom and autonomy 
of the colleges affiliated to it in the same spirit as it wants 
autonomy itself. The proper sphere of university autonomy lies 
in the selection of students, the appointment and promotion 
of teachers, determination of courses of study, methods of teaching 
and the selection of areas and problems of research. 

It recommends the setting up of committee of management 
with wider administrative and financial powers in each university 
department. The report says that degree offered by one university 
should be automatically recognised by all other universities in the 
country. There should be co-operation and division of labour 
among universities in the use of costly equipment and where there 

is a shortage of qualified teachers. , 

To prevent over-production or a series shortfall of qualified 
man-power in any sphere, the Commission recommends that 
suitable machinery be set up for consolation between the univer- 
sities, the University Grants Commission, the Inter University 
Board and the Government as regards the numbers to be trained 

and the courses of study to be adopted to meet national require- 

rSoolT a' Vice-Chancellor, the report recommends that 
^he De hi procedure” or some variation of it be adopted. The 


ri.tidtt^rs-ota'SlSt/rdlt'ermine the courses of stud,- 

and standards. available and 

Enrolments should "'“'f ,3 3 i,a,e uhich is to 

affiliation should be regarded by colleges as a p 

be continually earned and deserved. 

^02 Kodiari Commission 

(vii) Lifcracy Campaign : The Commission recommends 
a nalionwidc campaign to end illiteracy within 20 years. It 
says c\'cry cfTort sliouid be made to raise the percentage of 
literacy to 60 by 1971, 80 percent by 1976 and lOO percent in 
20 years. 

The report says that under a compulsory national service 
programme school and college students should be required to 
participate in tlic campaign. 

To launch an effective adult education programme each uni- 
versity should establish a board as well as a department of adult 
education, the report recommends. Voluntary agencies working 
in this field should be given financial and technical encourage- 

The Commission recommends that India should work to- 
wards a stage when all education will be free. For the present 
children should be able to receive free tuition in the primary and 
lower secondary stage, preferably by the end of fourth and 
fifth plans respectively. 

With regard to higher .secondary and university fees’ the 
main effort in the 10 years should be to extend the benefit of free 
education to needy and deserving students. 

Top priority should be given to providing free text-books at 
the primary stage. Book banks should be developed in secondary 
schools and institutions for higher education. 

The Commission calls for the reduction of other costs of 
education and the provision of instructional material to children 
free of charge. 

(viii) National Policy^ : The Commission does not favour 
putting education on the Concurrent List of the Constitutions as 
this would “fragment education” with one part in Concurrent and 
the other in the State List. 

An extensive effort should be made to exploit fully the exis- 
ting provisions of the Commission for the development of edu- 
cation and evaluation of a national educational policy. The prob- 
lem may then be reviewed again after 10 years, it says. 

The immediate national policy, the commission says, should 
be to associate the local communities, namely village panchayats 
in rural areas and municipalities is urban areas, with their local 
schools and to make them responsible for the provision of all 
non teachers costs with the help of a suitable grant-in aid from 

1. See Chapter 21. 

A Panorama of Decade 203 

It recommends the constitution of districts below the univer- 
sity level. The jurisdiction of the boards should cover the entire 
area excepting big municipalities. A Senior State Government 
Officer should be the whole time seceretary of such a board. 

In towns with a population of one lakh or more, it would be 
desirable to establish municipal boards on the lines of district 
boards. They would be autonomous in day-to-day administration 
and maintain an education fund. 

The Union Government should establish institutions specia- 
lizing in social sciences and humanities in close association with 
universities. It should also develop education in Union Territories 
to serve as a pace-setter for the other areas. It should expand 
centrally sponsored schemes to stimulate educational develop- 
ments in the national interest in crucial sectors. 

(ix) Private Enterprise : Private enterprise in the field of 
education has a limited role, but the State should utilize it, the 
commission says. It suggests that National Council of Edu- 
cational Research and Training should be developed as the prm 
cipal technology agency functioning at the national level to 
improve school education. 

- To co-ordinate educational programmes at the State level, 
the commission recommends statutory council of education with 
the State Education Minister as the chairman. It also recom- 
mended a standing committee at the officer’s level with the edu- 
cation secretary as the chairman. The commission wants the 
present practice of selecting an eminent educationist as education 
secretary to continue. 

The Indian Education Service should be a service agency to 
teaching and research. At the junior level, only one third of the 
posts should be filled by direct recruitment. The remaining should 
be filled partly by direct recruitment and partly by promotion at 
the level of the senior and higher scales. 

■ The Commission says, the idea of creating a teaching wing in 
the IBS should be abandoned as there are “insuperable difficulties . 
An adequate number of posts comparable to the higher scales of 
pay in the IBS should be created in the universities and colleges 
to prevent a drain of talent from teaching and research to admini- 

.The commission recommends that education should be given 

204 Kodiari Commission 

a statutory basis in all States and Union Territories. The acts 
should be comprehensive and place all the miscellaneous laws 
which exist. The commission wants the Union Government 
to issue a statement on the national policy to guide State 
Governments and local authorities in implementing educational 
plans. The possibility of passing a National Educational Act 
may also be examined. 

(x) Teaching Methods ; The commission suggests the Uni- 
versity Grants Commission should appoint a special committee 
to examine the problems of teaching methods in higher education. 

The commission holds that improvement in teaching methods 
should aim at discouraging cramming and stimulating curiosity, 
problem solving ability and originality. It recommends the setting 
up of a central examination reform unit by the University Grant 
Commission to work in colloboration with the universities. 

At all teaching universities and at the major universities, set 
syllabuses and external examinations should be replaced by a 
system of internal and continuous evaluation by the teachers 

Talented students from major universities, the commission 
says, should be induced to join the teaching profession, and the 
majority of them should be placed in colleges other than their 
own so that they can help rise standards. 

The report calls for forging strong ties among major univer- 
sities, advanced centres and affiliated colleges. 

Efforts should be made to strengthen and expand the UGC 
programme to establish the centres for advanced studies. 
“Clusters’ of advanced centres should be established at the most 
promising universities. Fifty such centres, some in modern Indian 
languages and one in educations, should be established in the next 
five to 10 years. 

By the end of the Fourth Plan 50 of the best colleges should 
be made autonomous if they are willing to accept this status, the 
commission says. Nothing is done in this respect. 

The universities should develop a sense of social responsibi- 
lity among the intelligentia through the analysis of social, 
economic and cultural problems with which modern man is faced. 

At least six major universities should be developed to make 
first class post-graduate work and research of international 

A Panorama of Decade 205 

standard possible. The major universities should be selected 
from among the existing ones and should include one of the 
Indian institutes of technology and one agricultural university. 

An energetic search should be made throughout the country 
for outstanding and promising persons to be recruited as teaching 
and research staff in the major universities. 

(xi) External Examination : The first public external exami- 
nation should come at the end of the first 10 years of schooling, 
which should provide a general education without specialization. 
No attempt should be made at specialization until beyond class X. 

Secondary schools should be of two types-high schools 
providing a 10 year course and higher secondary schools 
providing a course of 11 or 12 years. 

The Commission recommends that only the bigger and more 
eflBcient schools — about one fourth of the total— should be upgra 
ded. The existing higher secondary schools should be downgraded 
if they do not deserve that status. 

A new higher secondary course, beginning in class XI, should 
be started. Classes XI and XII (and during the transitional 
period class XI only) should provide specialized studies in different 
subjects. Where, however, existing schools with integrated course 
in classes IX, X and XI are running satisfactorily, the 
arrangement may continuous until Class XII is added. 

The pre-university course should be transferred from uni- 
versities and affiliated colleges to secondary schools by 1975-76 
and the duration of the course should be increased to two years by 
1985-86. The University Grants Commission should be 
responsible for affecting this transfer. 

Simultaneously, higher secondary class or classes should be 
started in selected schools by State Education Department as 
self contained units and assisted with adequate recurring grants. 

Boards of secondary education should be reconstituted to 
accept the responsibility for the higher secondary stage also. 

Students will step off from the general stream of education 
into vocational courses at two points— the end of class seven or 
eight and the end of Class X. Provision should be made for 
vocational courses 1 to 3 years’ duration at the lower and 
higher secondary stages. 

206 Kothari Commission 

fxii) Comments on ‘the Report’ by V. V. Jobn.^ : Following 

arc some of the important comments from “A Report on 
Report” by V. V. John. 

1. Most people approached the recommendations of the 
Commission with certain healthy scepticism. The re- 
commendations call for administrative action, that, other 
things being as before, we dread. But the text of the 
report spells out the attitudes and the thinking behind 
the recommendations and, though one sometimes wishes 
they had not spoken in the tones of patent schoolmaster 
in ‘an idiot school’ the attitudes are largely reassuring 

2. I would suggest that no administrator should be per- 
mitted to implement any of the recommendations until 
he has gone through the intellectual exercise of trying to 
tear the Commission’s arguments to pieces and of being 
finally converted to the commission’s point of view. 
If he does not agree with the commission’s thinking and 
its recommendation on any particular point, he should 
be free to seek other solution. 

3. In important respects our attitude to Commissions is 
different from that of the Britishers who invented them. 
XXX By the look of it the Kothari Commission’s 
Report is likely to be on our conscience for a long time 
to come. 

4. In the event, the largest of the world’s domocracies 
gave itself the largest written constitution in the world. 
We have now matched it with largest ever Report on 
Education and National Development. 

5. The Report is some-thing less than an encylopaedia (on 
educational development) and considerably more than a 
book. X X X In the fact, the whole report is more or less 
in the same idiom as the Government of India’s Resolu- 
tion setting up the Commission. 

6. The wittiest thing in the book is the passage of Dr. 
Kothari’s covering letter to Mr. Chagla in which he 
apologizes for the size of the Report— “It could have 

t V. V. John— ‘A Report on Report.’ Hindustan Times— dated 30-8-1966' 

Panorama of Decade 207 

been shorter”, he says, “but that would have cost more 
money and time and delayed action.” 

7. The Report does speak of teacher initiative and the 
freedom to experiment at all levels of education. 

8. The report allows, for instance, ten years for the general 
adoption of an advance curriculum (equivalent to the 
present higher secondary standard) in class I to X. Expe- 
rience in other countries indicates that the change-over 
to higher standards could be much quicker. We have 
erred top long and to woefully through understanding 
the capacity of the pupils. 

The “pace-setting” that the Commission is looking for 
should be done by the most ambitious and heterodox 
institutions and teachers, and the administrators may be 
advised to get out of their way. 

(xiii) Experiment in Adult Education : A Message in SITE^ 
Some years ago foreign observer noted that there were two things 
India might do to refurbish its image : stage a nuclear explosion 
or establish a national television net work. It has done both. 
The Pokharan blast was admittedly for peacefnl purposes while 
the incipient national TV network has taken a significant step 
forward with the inauguration of the Satellite Instructional 
Television Experiment. 

SITE is a unique experiment of international significance and 
the eyes of communicators, planners and- administrators round 
the world will be on India this next year for the duration of this 
collaborative undertaking. Thanks are due to NASA (the US 
space agency) for the “loan” of the powerful ATSF satellite now 
“beamed” on India with its one-video twin-audio channel, the 
UNDP, and others who have helped in a variety of ways. 

The major task and responsibility is that of a number of 
Indian agencies including ISRO and AIR and a host of pro- 
gramme participants at the Centre and in Andhra, Karnataka, 
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan — the six States 
in which direct-reception TV sets are being located in clusters of 
400 villages each in relatively backward and disadvantaged 
districts. Villages in Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat will 
also be served through existing and some newly-created facilities. 

1. Hindustan Times : Editorial, 

208 Kothari Commission 

The very multiplicity of linguistic, agro-climatic and socio-cultura) 
regions involved suggests the complexity and delicacy of the ex- 
periment which is to use TV as an aid to development. This was 
Vikram Sarabhai’s dream. 

Agriculture, pre-primary and teacher training, health, 
hygiene, family planning and nutrition, and general interest and 
social education programmes will be telecast daily to unsophisti- 
cated audiences hitherto beyond easy reach of new ideas. An 
assumed rural population of around 2‘5 million will be able to 
view SITE in the six clusters, and many more elsewhere. The 
resuis could be fascinating and will be watched with the greatest 
interest. If the message truly goes home, then the growing TY- 
radio network can in tandem be used increasingly as a develop- 
ment aid in a variety of ways. A rural-urban interchange, as the 
Prime Minister put it, would also integrate the nation. The 
country’s TV programmers and extension workers have a tremen- 
dous challenge and opportunity before them. 

Among the many handicaps of developing society is the 
“communication gap” it faces. Development implies technologi- 
cal and organisational improvement and social change through 
the propagation of information and ideas. The role of communi- 
cations is vital, and TV is only one of the mass media which is 
itself only part of total national “communication’s web” in the 
transmi.ssion of information and ideas. The central task before 
the country is to strenghthen and expand this “web” and to avoid 
doing anything that restricts it or limits its elBcacy. So while 
launching SITE, with all its existing potential, it would be fitting 
and proper for the Government urgently to review its larger 
communications policy. National assets and traditions, patiently 
and proudly built up over a century and more, once devalued 
would rob the country of the vary tools of development that are 
rightly being augmented and fashioned in yet another mould 
through SITE. 


With the dawn of independence every body was sure that 
educational system would undergo drastic changes and it would 
be a powerful tool to contribute effectively to the achievement of 
the goals of national development, self sufficiency, ]iquidation _ 

— ♦ Reproduced with kind permission of the author Professor Devendra 

Rqhinwal.. Deptt. of Teacher Education. DAY College Dehra Dun. 

A Panoroma of Decade 209 

of illiteracy and social, emotional and national integration. The 
nurturing of talents at all levels will lead to the equalization of 
opportunities and will strong then the forces of egaliterian society 
to minimise the exploitation of the weak and will channelise the 
energies of the youth and the masses in a constructive way for 
the establishment of secular democracy and socialistic pattern of 
society which will be coping with the modern scientific and 
technological advancements without the sacrifice of the sprit and 
our rich cultural heritage of which every Indian should be proud 
for obvious reasons. Even Kothri Commission remarks : — 

“To evolve a system of education which should promote 
national consciousness through the promotion of understanding 
and re-evaluation of our cultural heritage”. 

Sooner we do away with the imperialistic and the colonial 
system of education better it would be for us. The charter of 
demands submitted by Sliri Jai Prakash Narain on March 6, 
1975 also asserts that education must be the instrument of social 
change and should lead to modernization instead of westerni- 
zation. The achievement of universal primary and adult edu- 
cation and linking it with employment should promote our system 
of education. 

We have been blaming the Britishers for not giving us 
National System of Education. On the other hand they used it 
as a powerful tool to create a class of people who could be 
relied upon to strengthen the British Raj in India. The cost which 
we paid for such a system was a sharp break with the past, gulf 
between the masses and elite, the curbing of creativity and ori- 
ginality in us, and wastage and stagnation at every level and mass 
illiteracy. Even after 32 years of freedom we are still following 
the legacy of the crown and infact Ceaser The dead of British 
Empire is more powerful than the Ceaser— the alive of British 
Empire.” The educational institutions with a foreign medium 
are the symbols of social prestige and linked with bread and 
butter This great divide between the elite and the masses should 
be removed without any delay if we want that education should 
be free from perfidy, hypocricy, narrow mmdedness, selfish mani- 
pulation, out-dated beureaucray and the worst type of commer- 
cialization. For this, we will have to change our outlook and 
think straight forward that minority is of the rich and the pri- 
veleged and majority is of the poor and the underdogs. The high 

210 Kothari Commission 

values altacliccl lo tlic education through whole span of life and 
the deep respect for learning arc deep rooted in the culture of 
India and has been considered inevitable for the enrichment of 
personality and quality of life throughout the ages. Now in the 
context of the changing times we will have to make ourselves free 
from extra-territorial loyality, may be under the garb of any 
spiritual afinity, and “ism'’, any idealogical base, progressive 
‘ism’, Psudo-Secularism and certain misguided and misinter- 
preted slogans. 

We should develop proper non-cornmuna! attitude by the 
subordination of all narrower loyatities to the supreme loyality 
to the nation. 

We should cultivate the basic values of humanism democracy, 
socialism, the love of motherland, the love for the dignity of 
labour, the positive attitude and the development of our 
national language as unifying factor with a sense of pride that we 
have not been only the pioneers but have also contributed a lot 
in the realms of literature, philosophy, art, culture, science and 

But the primary and the most important factor is to be kept 
in mind that the soul of education is a teacher and the progress of 
the nation depends on the economic and social uplift and the 
quality of teachers. 

Let us quote a shalok from Katho-Upanished 

?rr^r ; 

(Wonderful becomes the seeker of the knowledge when taught 
by a competent teacher) 


The Tarkunde Committee’s effort, undertaken on the request 
of Mr. Jayaprakash Narayan, to present a policy frame for 
educational reform to make education not only relevent to India’s 
society today but also available to those socially and economically 
at a disadvantage, is more than ordinarily welcome in the decades 
since the British left, education, which at the best of times during 
their rule was direly wanting in depth and seriousness, has deterio- 
rated practically unchecked. There has been a great deal of talk 
about making education appropriate for the various levels of 

♦ Hindustan Times— Editorial 

A Panoroma of Decade 21 1 

requirement in this country ; and there has in recent years been 
much good breath wasted on juggling with ten-plus-two or eight- 
plus-four and the rest of it. But there does not any longer obtain 
a system of education to speak of. To crown every-thing, there 
is talk now and then — on an ad-hoc basis, of course — of such 
measures as doing away with English and substituting it vvith 
regional languages j or making it non-compulsory for government 
jobs ; or practially removing it from UPSC tests ; and so on. In the 
bargain, the so-called university graduate in this country is 
“educated” only on the cerjificate he may have to show. As for 
research or higher education what passes for these is of course 
mostly unacceptable outside the country. The wonder is that in 
the conditions that prevail there should continue to come up now 
and then people who really are educated ! This speaks for those 
who come up, and certainly not for the government and its 

In the midst of all this, to have had the courage to make 
sensible recommendations such as have been made by the 
Tarkunde Committee and by Dr. Nalk of the Indian Institute of 
Education, knowing that the chances of their being put into 
ractice are by no means bright, bespeaks either sheer optimism 
r the kind of gumption that does eventually succeed in making a 
acial dent. The attempt at creating a “national system of 
ducation”, as summed up by Mr. Jayaprakash Narayan in his 
)reword, would include pursuit of simultaneous and complemen- 
iry programmes of social and educational reform ; involvement 
f the entire community in the educational process, where the 
uphasis would have shifted from teaching to learning, coopera- 
on and co-ordination between educational and socio-political 
'orkers ; emphasis on the pursuit of excellence as a way of life ; 
nd the primacy of work in the scale of social values. Very 
msibly, while the policy suggested would have increased access 
f poor people to secondary and higher education through 
xtension of facilities such as freeships and scholarship, it would 
lake post- elementary education not a matter of right. The sense 
1 this would seem to lie in the consequent selection of only the 
litable for higher education, making eventually for seriousness 
ad quality at the university level — apart from stemming the 
otsam-jetsam flood of admission-seekers every year. But while 
I this is welcome, and while there must be general agreement 

212 Kothari Commission 

with tlic committee that a “system” certainly needs over-hauling 
in whicli 35 million teachers in some 700,000 institutions at an 
annual cost of Rs. 25,000 million make education a mockery for 
about 100 million students, it is difficult to agree with its pre- 
ference for abolition of public and other independent schools. 
Not immediately in any case. In expectation of good things to 
come, it may not be prudent to jettison what we have. 


Education in Sixth Plan 

Since the dawn of independence, education in India faced a 
lot of ups and downs. Every five year plan provided a bunch of 
programme along with some allocation of the budget. Every year, 
our population has been increasing and there is a dirth of educa- 
tional facilities. We could not even achieve the target of free and 
compulsory education upto the age group of 6-14 years. 

The year 1977 was a landmark in the history of the country. 
For the first time Janta Government took charge' from Congress 
Party. Then, sixth Plan was prepared under her policies. Many 
new phases have been introduced. Here we are presenting the 
text of Educational provisions provided in the the plan. ^ 

“The educational system has recorded, over the years, a pheno- 
menal growth. At the beginning of the Fifth Five Year plan, the 
total number of schools and colleges had increased to 572 lakhs 
2*31 lakhs in 1950-51 ; the corresponding increase in enrolment 
was from 273 lakhs to 876 lakhs. The total government expendi- 
ture on education in 1973-74 was Rs. 1311 crores or more 
than eighteen times as compared to 1950-51. In terms of pro- 
portion of children of the age-group 6— H, for whom edu- 
cational facilities were available the progress achieved is indica- 

ted below ■; 

Classes/ Age-groups 

Enrolment (in lakhs) 

Percentage of the 
Population in the 











I— V/6— 1 1 

VI— viir/ii ~M . 

I— vni/6— 14 . 













Reprinted with Courtsey of the Central Govt, of India. 

214 Kothari Commissiou 

Notwiihstanding the educational investments made, we have yet 
to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education and 
complete eradication of illiteracy. 

The Policy Frame 

The proposal for the development of education during the 
Plan have been based on six major changes of policy : 

(i) The programmes of adult education, including the eradi- 
cation of adult illiteracy, have been neglected in the 
post-independence period and have generally received less 
then one per cent of the total education expenditure. In 
view of their significance, it is now proposed to accord 
them high priority- An attempt will be made to develop 
a nation-wide and large-scale programme of adult edu- 
cation with special emphasis on illiterates in the age- 
group 15 — 35, and as much as 10 per cent of the total 
educational outlay in the Plan will be earmarked for this 

(ii; A far greater priority will be given to the programme of 
universalizing elementary education in the age-group 6-14 
which will be assigned about half the total allocation for 
education in the Plan period. Several major reforms 
will be introduced with the object of increasing the use- 
fulness of the of the earlier programmes which had large 
dropout rates and were known for their ineffectiveness 
and inefficiency. There will be special emphasis on the 
enrolment of girls and the children of weaker sections of 
the community such as scheduled castes, scheduled tribes 
and landless agricultural labourers. 

(iii) So far, quantitative expansion of secondary and higher 
education has received a greater priority and a larger allo- 
cation of funds. It is proposed to regulate enrolments 
in the general academic streams of higher secondary and 
higher education, to keep down the expansion of facilities 
at these stages to the minimum, and to shift the emphasis 
to vocationalization at the secondary stage and to the 
improvement of quality in secondary stage and higher 

(iv) The non-plan government expenditure on education has 
now become very large. It has registered an annual 

Education in Sixth Plan 215 

growth rate of 12 per cent during the last ten years and 
it is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 2245 crores in 
1978-79. It is proposed to have an integrated look at 
Plan and non-Plan provisions and devise concrete 
measures for a better and more effective utilisation of this 
invesiment for meeting development goals. 

(v) The implementation of educational programmes has been 
far from optimal in the past. Concrete and vigorous 
steps will, therefore, be taken to improve the quality of 
implementation, especially in States where universali- 
sation of elementary education has made less headway 
and the prevalence of illiteracy among adults is large. 

(vi) Measures are also proposed to ensure a rural bias in the 
educational programmes, to develop science education 
and a scientific attitude and to provide a system of non- 
formal education and training at all stages. 

Elementary Education 

The additional enrolment in elementary education during the 
four years of the Fifth Plan was 106 lakhs (72 lakhs in classes I-V 
and 34 lakhs in classes VI-VIII) and the levels of enrolment 

reached were 85 per cent in the age group 6— 11, 40 per cent in 

the age-group 6—14. 

It is now proposed to accelerate the pace of expansion consi- 
derably and to fulfil the directive of Article 45 of the Constitution 
in about ten years. From this point of view, the following new 

strategy is proposed to be adopted . 

(i) The emphasis so far has been on mere ‘enrolment’ in 
classes I— V and VI— VIII. This has concealed inflated enrol- 
ments and large drop-out rates of about 60 per cent between classes 

I V and 75 per cent between classes I— Vlll. It is, therefore, 

proposed to lay down ‘average attendence’ in addition to ‘enrol- 
ment’ as a more legitimate basis for the assesment of progress or 
provision of teachers and to prescribe specific targets for annual 
Lrolments in class I, class V and class VIII. Special efforts would 
also be made for reduction of wastage and for monitoring of pro- 
grammes for that purpose. 

(ii) All urban areas have facilities for elementary education. 
In rural araas SO per cent oflrabi.a.ions baving 93 P- 

total rural population have a Primary school i c l.lomelres 

216 Kolhari Commission 

and over 60 per cent of habitations having 72 per cent of the total 
rural population have a middle school within 3 kilometres. 
Careful plans will be prepared for location of new primary and 
middle schools and all the institutions required will be opened on 
a priority basis during the Plan period. 

(iii) The only strategy adopted so far to universalize elemen- 
tary education is to enrol additional children in class I (all these 
arc expected to attend on a full-time basis) at the beginning of 
each school year. This strategy will be continued and expanded. 
Every primary school will be expected to prepare census of all 
children in the age-group 6-7 and enrol as many of them as 
possible in the beginning of each school year through specially 
organized enrolment drives. It is thus hoped that by the end of the 
plan period, non-enrolment of young children in class I will 
almost be eliminated. 

(iv) The present system of single-point entry and exclusively 
full-time education has two serious weaknesses; it gives no opportu- 
nity to grown-up children to join school if they desire to do so, 
and It leads to large rates of drop-out because grown up children 
who have to work are left with no option but to discontinue edu- 
cation. It is, therefore, proposed to introduce two major 
reforms : — 

(a) A multiple-entry system will be adopted and special con- 
densed courses of non-formal education will be organised for 
grown-up children in the age-group 9^ — 14 who have never been 
to school or dropped out so early as to become illiterate again. 
Special emphasis will be laid on programmes for children in the 
age-group 1 1 — 14. It has been the experience that these children 
can be taken to the level of class V in 12—24 months. 

(b) A system of part-time, non-formal continuation educa- 
tion will be designed for children who enter the primary school 
but drop-out iater, generally in the age-group 9 — 1 ^. The rule 
will be that every child in the age-group 6 — 14 shall attend school, 
on a full-time basis, if necessary for those who cannot, mainly for 
economic reasons, attend full-time education. This will reduce 
drop-outs and wastage very greatly. 

It is expected that, as a result of the programmes mentioned 
above the enrolments in elementary education during the Plan will 
jnerease by 320 lakhs (220 lakhs in classes I— V and 100 lakhs in 

Education in Sixth Plan 217 

classes VI VIII). A very large proportion of these would be in 
part time non-formal education. The enrolment increase would 
mean educational facilities for 110 per cent of the children in the 
^gO'group 6 — 11, 57 percent of the children in the age-group 
II — 14, and 90 per cent of the children in the age-group6 — 14 
by 1982-83. 

(v) The vast bulk of the non-attending children at present 
consists of girls, children of scheduled casts and tribes and children 
of other weaker sections like landless agricultural labourers, 
efforts will be made to enrol them. These will include : appoint- 
ment of more women teachers, free supply of text-books or even 
clothing where necessary, provision of mid-day meals where nece- 
ssary and possible under the revised minimum needs programme, 
establishment of ashram schools especially for tribal children in 
sparsely populated areas, intensive educational propaganda among 
the people, setting up separate targets for the enrolment of girls and 
children of scheduled castes and schedulde tribes and so on. The 
imbalances of development between boys and girls and different 
social strata will thus be greatly reduced. 

(vi) An attempt will be made to reduce imbalances in 
regional development. Every State will be requested to ensure 
that special efforts are made to rapidly identify backward areas 
and to promote expansion of elementry education therein. 

(vii) Educational research related to problems of taking 
education to section which have so far been by-passed is a neglected 
area. Action-oriented educational research and experimental pro- 
jects of intensive educational development as part of integrated 
area development programmes will, therefore, be given special 
encouragement and support. 

(viii) The expansion visualized in the programme in unprece- 
dented, whether considered in absolute figures or in terms of per- 
centage increase. It has also to be in areas and for population 
groups which constitute the hard core of the poor and the back- 
ward in the country. It will, therefore, need great organizational 
effort and administrative support. The campaigns of adult educa- 
tion that are being simultaneously organized will be help in this 
task. Attempts will also be made to organize a mass movement 
of parental education to support this programme. The elementary 
school teachers will have to play a vital role and their services may 
be utilised not only for teaching the children who come to school 

2.'S Kothari Commission 

out als' to brine r.on-attencir.g children to srhoc] and to sc-e that 
they CO not drop out. ~ae supenusing machinery nvni he ade- 
quately strengthened and the help of other goverrmnent depart- 
ments '.vjji be enlisted. 

Program.mes of qualitative improvement in elementary* edu- 
cation help the programmes of e.upansion by enhancing the attra- 
cting and holding pO'.ver of sehoois. It is, therefore, proposed 
to emphasize and to aliocate adequate funds for several pro- 
grammes of quaiitative imox-ovement such as introduction oi 
socially useful productive vorlu curricular referm so as to hui 
euucation to tne environment and to maite it relevant and inter- 
esting to children, relating school vacations to climatic and 
aaricultural conuitioiis, orovision or equiument and pro*»~iiion. or 
cheap but enectively useful buildings constructec. as far as pos- 
sible, out of local materials by local comm'uniries, improvement 
in the caalitv of school boois, a-doorion of dvnamic methods, ol 

creation of a scieniinc awareness and inculcating a scieutmc 
attitude, better pre-serrice and in-serrice education of teachers 
and improvement of supervision. 

Clearly, so large and unprecendented an eSorr vill need a 
much greater investment than in any earlier Plan. This demand 
is proposed to be met through three-pronged drive of economy in 
unit costs, more elective urilizstion of exising resources, and 
increased ailocaiion. 

(aj Uni: costs in elementary education will be considerably 
reducen oecause of the adoption of the programmes of part-time 

2j'i d iion'iOra-a.2ui sciiic^iion. 

ro’dia alio ce recuccG tiirouEi 

the acopuon of ihe double-sysiein. at leas: for classes I and II. 

Co) There is an ineSeciive use of availabie resources ar present 
r}“Cattse or overlapoina and duplication mvojven m cao location or 
elementary scncols and irrational icstina or teacners. mere is 
evidence to shov that in many areas existing facihries are grossly 
under ntilizeG.. A. sustaineo and intensive enort is neecen *o correct 
these deficiencies. This will mahe it possib^ to increase the 
enrolments vrithout proportionate additional sian. 

(c) The allocations to elementary enucaticn also need to ce 
substantially inc.veased. In the Plan it is propost-i to allocate 
PvS. 9C*3 crores. or neary 50 per cent of the total allocatlor., to 


Education in Sixth Plan 219 

elementary education (which is roughly about three times that 
during 1974 — 78). 

Adult Education 

The existing programmes of adult education viz., (1) the 
farmers’ functional literacy project for rural areas, (2) the Shramik 
Vidyapeeths and polyvalent adult education centres for urban 
areas, (3) adult education departments in universities, (4) the 
Nehru Yuvak Kendras, (5) National Service Scheme, and 
(6) assistance to voluntary organisations for adult education will 
be continued, improved and expanded where necessary. But the 
main feature of the Plan is the proposal to mobilise all these 
efforts and organize a very large, intensive and nation-wide pro- 
gramme of adult education, with special emphasis on the age- 
group 15 — 35. Whereas in the past the total number of adults 
made literate every year was about 5 lakhs, it is now proposed 
that programmes of adult education and literacy in the Plan will 
cover about 650 lakhs in total, 15 lakhs in the first year, 45 lakhs 
in the second, 90 lakhs in the third, 180 lakhs in the fourth and 
320 lakhs in the fifth and final year. 

It is obvious that an immense organizational and finan- 
cial effort is needed to implement such a colossal programme. 
Some of the salient aspects of this effort have been indicated 
below : — 

(i) The main target group of the programme is the illiterate 

and unorganized people in rural and urban areas who are most 
exploited and weak and generally live below the poverty me. ven 
among these, special emphasis will be laid on those v\ o are in 
the age-group 15-35. Women among whom illitercy rate is very 
high, scheduled castes and tribes, landless ai^jcu tura a 
and other weaker sections of the community will naturally 

special attention. ■ u- 

(ii) While literacy has a special place of its own 

programme, meant essentially for the poor ! 

principal objective is to increase the awarenes ^ 

about themselves and about the socia rea i y > 

organize them to assist them to m 

different problems in their day to d y rntl-m''] de' elc-- 

meaningful and challenging laab of so™' .1; 

raent. Besides liieraey. the main ft'' l';" 

therefore, include an appropriate ‘m«’ smted to tne n.e.. 

220 Kothari Commission 

interests of tiic individual, of such themes as general education 
including citizenship training, health education and family plann- 
ing upgrading of vocational skills, deeper understanding of science 
and technology in day-to-day life and physical education and 
cultural activities. 

(iii) The success of the programme will depend upon stimulat- 
ing the motivation of adults, proper selection and training 
of workers, preparation of good learning materials, adoption 
of dynamic methods of learning through doing and living, organi- 
sation of a mass movement, and provision of adequate supervision 
and guidance. These aspects will, therefore, be given adequate 
attention in the Plan. 

(iv) In developing the programme, full utilization will be 
made of voluntary agencies, young persons, interested in social 
service, institutions and organisations engaged in economic or 
other activities but interested in adult education, workers’ organi- 
zations, retired teachers or other personnel and in fact, of the 
immense and valuable educational resources outside the formal 
system of education which can be advantageously harnessed to 
programmes of adult education. The workers within the formal 
system of education— teachers and students — will be utilized on 
selective basis. Wherever possible, programmes of adult educi 
tion will be linked to those of development. 

(v) Such a programme can only be organized on a high 
decentralized basis. A National Board of Adult Education hs 
been established at the Centre to guide the programme. Suitab 
agencies will also be set up with similar objectives at the Stats 
district, block and local community levels. 

The first year of the programme will be mainly preparator) 
Some of the measures are : programme-planning in consultatio 
with all agencies as envisaged and extended to district/block leve 
identification and mobilisation of voluntary young workers, ex-sei 
vicemen and other agencies at the field level, creation of a suitabl 
environment including pre-conditions for initial motivation an^ 
sustained participation of adult learners, establishment of resource 
centres in all regions, preparation of curriculum and teachin; 
learning materials on the basis of identified needs of learnen 
development of methods and materials for training, as well a 
training of instructional personnel at the district and project levels 
The basic sub-structure of the needed machinery for this naliona 
campaign will also be created during this period. 

Educational in Sixth Plan 221 

An important aspect of the the programme being developed 
is that it will go far beyond the traditional boundaries of the 
Education Department. In fact, this programme will have to be 
regarded as a collaborative effort in which all Central and State 
agencies, industry, employers, organisations of workers, etc. will 
have to play an important role. Another equally important aspect 
is that area-specific and group-specific plans closely linked to 
development, will be carefully prepared for implementation, with 
adequate provision for the administrative, supporting and super- 
vising machinery. 

The total allocation proposed for the programme is Rs. 200 
crores or 10 per cent of the total educational plan outlay as 
against Rs. 18 crores or about 1 per cent of the educational finan- 
cial outlay in the Fifth Plan. It needs to be pointed out, however, 
that this is only one source of funds for the programmes of adult 
education in the Plan in which multiple agencies are expected to 
participate and which will, therefore, be funded from multiple 
sources. For instance, the different empoyer-groups and project 
authorities might fully finance their adult education activities. The 
needs of tribal areas and groups may be met from outlays of tribal 
sub-plans The Plan outlay for rural development and agriculture 
could like-wise include provisions for the farmers’ literacy projects. 
The outlay shown under education may therefore, be only a part 
of the total provision available for adult education during the next 
five years This will be stepped up if necessary on the basis of 

the experience gained in the year to year implementation of the 


Secondary Education 

The development of secondary education has generally been in 
he form of an expansion of facilties. Even this has generally 

and acadeo..-ca„. 

Lwe The main thrust of the programmes mduded ,n the P an. 
™“toey!s to emphasise qualitati.e improvement, vocat.onahza- 
ion and to restrain expansion. 

.ion duu npw <;econdarv schoo s may be 

While establishment of some 

inevitable especially opening of many new 

Sa.y:chods°“m emphasis tvould be on the rationalisat.on 

222 Kotliari Commission 

and consolidation of existing schools. The attempt to introduce 
the uniform pattern of school and college classes will be continued 
and the several problems thrown up in its implementation will be 
continued and the several problems thrown up in its implemen- 
tation will be carefully sorted out. 

It is anticipated that the additional enrolment in secondary 
education during the Plan may be about 30 lakhs, which is almost 
equal to the expansion envisaged in the Fifth Plan, 1974 — 79. 
Most of this demand should be met, not by establishing new 
schools, but by better and more efficient utilization of the existing 
secondary schools. In addition, programmes of non-formal edu- 
cation, such as correspondence courses will be fully encouraged. 

Emphasis will be placed on quality improvement. There are 
several programmes which, while not requiring large finances never- 
theless would help lay foundation for sustained improvement. Pro- 
grammes proposed to be developed for this purpose will include, 
introduction of socially useful productive work, better teaching of 
languages (as means of communication), mathematics and science 
(will the provision of low cost laboratories), involvement of stu- 
dents in social service, including literacy v/ork and adult education, 
faculty improvement including improved training of teachers, and 
creating an ethos of work and dedication in the system. 

An equal if not greater emphasis will have to be placed 
on vocationalization with the object of making secondary edu- 
cation employment-oriented and directly useful for the students. 
Detailed guidelines for this purpose are being drawn up by a work- 
ing group set up by the Ministry of Education. Vocational courses 
to be provided at various levels will be of a more substantial order 
than in the Fifth Plan but still be experimental in nature and 
would be dovetailed with the programmes of rural development. 

It is necessary that existing training facilities, which have 
already been created in the Industrial Training Institutes, Poly- 
technics, Agricultural Polytechnics, para-medical schools and other 
vocational training institutions are fully utilised and diversified 
before new training programmes are established. The requirments 
of new training programmes need to be identified on the basis of 
of intensive surveys of specific localities. Considering that the 
organised sector may not provide sufficient avenues of employment 
for all the products of vocational courses, it will be necessary to 
identify avenues of self-employment for which skill training can 

Education in Sixth Plan 


be organized for secondary school students. This vdll be parti- 
cularly necessary in rural areas where the new investments sdsuaii- 
zed might open avenues for gainful employment. 

The present system of public (and similar) schools run by 
private bodies and charging high fees which restrict them to the 
children of afriuent sections is inconsistent with an egalitarian 
society. There is need for government to take steps to enable the 
poor talented children to join such schools and also to persuade 
existing institutions of this kind to admit and provide freeships to 
substantial number of students from among the talented but econo- 
mically handicapped. 

The total allocation for secondary education in the Plan li 
Rs. 300 crores. This prorision needs to be supplemented cy 
additional resources from other sources. For instance, the prac- 
tice of charging development fees, adopted by some StaLCJ lOr^ 
the provision and strengthening of work e.tperienve, te^-uncg Oj 
science, provision of school buildings and teacning ecui.-rue.-i, 
should become universal. Support from local contiiiumu.i i- 
cash and kind will also be encouraged on a vdder scale (.ni.. 

being done at present. In the same way, the 
over complete financial liability of privatels-manigeu 
needs to be reversed and the trend towardi the ^ 

of fees at the secondary stage needs to be halieu. 

provision can be made for scholarship^ and 

view to safeguarding the edcational interesii Or 

ged sections and meritorious students v-itnOt-L , 

secondary' schools need to be charged ct re.t— 

reasonable relationship vrith the cost Oi piO.u’dm- e can 

General Higher Education 

There has been an unplanned and rapid exp^ns.3^- 
higher education in the first fonr ^plaus. ^ m c 
rate of growth of general higher 
partly as a result of a deliceraie pou-,- 
partly due to the adoption ot tne 

education. This is a svelcome de.c»op_- <■ 

consolidated in the new Plan. 

No universities are prowceu ■■,[± great 

colleges are to be set up, in — - c' 

restraint, only afier ensuring :c 

teachers, finances and mateiiiir:- -~t-- 

224 Kothari Commission 

rationalize existing institutions with a view to encouraging diffe- 
rent colleges to concentrate programmes in a few subjects or 
subject combinations in which they could have academically viable 
teaching units, there will be rigorous control over the starting of 
additional courses in existing institutions. 

The policy regarding fees which has been suggested above 
for secondary education is even more relevant and necessary for 
higher education. This will act as a further curb on expansion; 
Two precautions are, however, needed in the rigorous pursuit of 
this policy : (a) care should be taken to see that the access of the 
community to higher education, which is probably their almost 
exclusive channel to vertical mobility, is increased, rather than 
decreased, and (b) non-formal programmes of higher education 
should be encouraged sothat the opportunity of higher education 
is available to all, who are qualified for it and are ready to receive 
it without being a drain on the public exchequer. All universities 
will be persuaded to open their examinations to private candidates 
and encourage self-study. 

The main emphasis in the Plan will, therefore, be on qualita- 
tive improvement. A broad policy frame for this has recently 
been prepared by the University Grants Commission which will 
be assisted to implement it. The major programmes included in 
the Plan are ; 

(i) Access to higher education will be linked to talent and 
aptitude, admission to full-time institutions of higher learning at 
the first degree and post-graduate levels will be selective, based 
on merit but with reservation of an adequate number of seats for 
the weaker sections. 

(ii) The under-graduate and post-graduate courses will be 
restructured to make them more meaningful and relevant to the 
society alike. There will be extensive diversification of courses 
and modernization of physical facilities as well as of the edu- 
cational methodologies. More stress will be laid on science edu- 
cation and on interdisciplinary activities. Courses of study, 
research and extension services which have bearing upon rural 
development, adult education and other priority programmes will 
be given special attention. 

(iii) The Indian languages will be adopted as media of ins- 
tructions of the under-graduate stage. The production of books 
in Indian languages will be expedited. Side by side, steps will be 

Education in Sixth Plan 225 

taken to provide facilities for students to acquire a good working 
knowlegde of English and other foreign languages so that they 
have direct access to the growing knowledge in the world. 

(iv) There has to be considerable decentralization of authority 
from the university to the departments and to the affiliated 
colleges. The programme , of autonomous colleges will be 
vigorously pursued. 

(v) The UGC assistance to colleges will be increasingly devo- 
ted to the improvement of academic standards in colleges on a 
selective basis. The grants-in-aid from State Governments to 
affiliated colleges need to be rationalised and effectively used as 
instruments for qualitative improvement. 

(vi) Extension programmes will form an integral part of 
higher education along with teaching and research. These will 
cover not only the improvement of other sub-sectors of education 
but also, as outlined in the chapter on Science and Technology, 
service to the local community. 

(vii) Post-graduate courses and research will be concentrated 
largely in university departments, their location, scope and areas 
of stress would be so planned that fewer centres of better quality 
are set up in different subjects rather than proliferating centres in 
the same subject field within the States. 

(viii) Faculty improvement will continue to receive emphasis 
and attention. 

(ix) Research, both fundamental and applied, will continue 
to be promoted. Programmes of support for research, both basic 
and applied, by individual*:, groups and departments will be 
strengthened, so as to help the emergence and growth of strong 
schools of research in the university system. 

The provision in the Plan, 1978 — 83, for general higher 
education is Rs. 265 crores. The reduction in the proportion of 
funds allocated to this sub-sector reflects the much higher priority 
attached to adult and. elementary education. It is, therefore, 
essential to exercise the greatest restraint on expansion, make 
efforts to raise internal resources through a discriminate use of 
fees including a differential structure and review all existing 

Technical Education 

The overall situation here is different. Technical education, 

226 Kothari Commission 

for instance, lias grown mainly in relation to assessed future 
demand for manpower and has been largely responsible for the 
development of the modern industrial scetor. But owing to 
increased output and a slack in the industry, the economy was 
not able to absorb all the products of the system which has an 
inbuilt capacity of annual intake of 25,000 students for degree 
courses and 50,000 students for diploma courses in different 
branches of engineering and technology. According to the present 
available estimates of additional requirements of engineering 
manpower for the next ten years, the existing facilities are consi- 
dered adequate, no provision is, therefore, included for the setting 
up of any new engineering colleges or polytechnics or for 
expansion of facilities beyond the capacity already approved. 
Changes in manpower demand in different specialities will be met 
by appropriate shifts in discipline-wise intake within the overall 
of the system. 

It is necessary to review the assessment made of the long- 
term requirements of engineering manpower, from time to time, 
state-wise and speciality-wise, and, taking into account the lead 
time involved, to specify the educational efforts currently needed 
in that context. In order to undertake such an assessment as part 
of the annual review of technical education perspectives, it is 
proposed to set up a technical manpower information system. 

The emphasis in the Plan will thus be on consolidation and 
qualitative improvement. The Plan provides for a phased 
programme of removal obsolescence and modernisation of 
facilities on the basis of redesign of laboratory and workshop 
practice and of modernization and diversification of courses with 
greater flexibility especially with reference to the needs of rural 
development, reduction of wastage, and integration of curriculum 
development with laboratory work-planning. ■ 

Provision has been made in the Plan for completing the 
on-going programmes of consolidation and improvement of 
facilities in existing institutions according to approved schemes. 
The five centres of advanced study and research in energy studies, 
material sciences, cryogenics, ocean engineering and resources 
survey would be fully established. Their future activities would 
mainly be to undertake research in identified fields in accordance 
with the National Plan of Science and Technology, specific 
projects as well as financial support for such research would have 

Education in Sixth Plan 227 

to be made available by sponsoring agencies in the Government 
departments and public sector/private industry. The programme 
of post-graduate courses and research in engineering and techno- 
logy will be stabilised at the current level, more emphasis will be 
given to sponsored research work to be assigned and funded by 
the user agencies, to technical extension services by the faculty 
and students and to faculty development programmes. 

The technical education system represents a national resource 
of science and technology with specialised laboratories, sophisti- 
cated instrumentation facilities and, more importantly, teams of 
highly qualified scientific and engineering personnel on their 
faculty. These internal resources should be utilised not merely 
towards technological self-reliance but also to bring about pro- 
gressive improvement in the quality of technical education. In 
this context, it should be examined whether a system of domestic 
technical assistance programme could not be formulated by 
pooling resources and facilities of selected institutions for the 
benefit of the developing ones. 

Other Programmes and Art and Culture 

, The Plan provides for the continuation of the on-going 
programmes in the fields of physical education, games and sports, 
language development, scholarships and art and culture. Keeping 
in view the resources constraint and the priorities for the massive 
programmes of elementary education and adult education, it may 
not be possible to include any new programmes or allow subs- 
tantial expansion of the existing*, ones. In the field of culture, 
special attention will have to be given to schemes relating to the 
preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage, parti- 
cularly monuments, repositories of manuscripts and art objects. 
The awareness of the cultural heritage will be developed among 
the students through curricular and co-curricular programmes. 

The distribution of the total financial outlay of Rs. 1955 
crores in the different sub-sectors is given to many items. This 
is exclusive of the non-plan provision which, as stated earlier, is 
likely to be Rs. 2245 crores in 1978-79. 

The major programmes included in the Plan are largely 
different from those included in the earlier plans and will need, 
more importantly than financial outlays, special efforts fcr their 

228 Kothari Commission 

implementation. Tlicir main aspect is that they emphasize 
essential human inputs without wJiich it will not be possible to 
to transform the educational system and which have generally 
been under-played in the past. On the academic side, these will 
include an emphasis on improving the ethos of the system' through 
the combined efforts of teachers, students, administrators and 
government, adoption of a policy of decentralization and diversi- 
fication, encouragement of innovations and experimentation 
through devolution of autonomy, emphasis on the development 
of non formal programmes of education at all stages, restructuring 
and revision of courses at all stages to make them significant and 
relevant and adoption of improved methods of teaching and 
evaluation (including the introduction of work experience and 
social service programmes, better teaching of science, languages 
and mathematics and the use of Indian languages as media of 
instruction at the under graduate stage). On the managerial and 
administrative side, it will include an intensive effort to work with 
all the different departments of government, harnessing the 
services of industry, organisation of employers and workers and 
voluntary organisations, close involvement of the people and 
raising community support and resources. The educational 
agencies will have to function differently to meet the challenges of 
the new programmes and educational institutions will have to be 
assisted and encouraged to function in close contact with the 
community and in mutually supporting groups rather than in 
atomized isolation from one another and from the community. 
The programmes of adult and universal elementary education will 
also include the organization of a mass movement to promote 
proper attitudes to strengthen voluntary effort and to create and 
sustain motivation. On the financial side, the earlier emphasis 
on the best and the most economical use of plan funds will 
continue. But special efforts will be needed to make a more 
effective use of non-plan resources and to reduce unit costs. 
Special administrative and promotive efforts will be needed in the 
less advanced States to help them to meet their challenges and 
problems and these will receive emphasis, attention and support. 

The Plan emphasises the need for equalisation of educational 
opportunities at all levels especially for the children of the weaker 
sections of the society, it provides for universalisation of elemen- 
tary education, greater access of these students to higher 

Education in Sixth Plan 22^ 

education, etc. In this context, the aim will be to see that these 
children are helped to avail themselves fully of the educational 
facilities earmarked for them in the different institutions, through 
measures like special remedial coaching/courses and personalised 
guidance services. 

The successful implementation of these programmes also 
requires that the hard decisions now taken about high priorities 
to elementary and adult education, control of expansion in 
secondary and higher education, non-increase in the hidden 
subsidies to to-well-to-do and urban sections, if not an actual 
reduction therein, and for optimum redeployment of non-plan 
provisions is support of development goals will continue to be 
adhered to throughout the plan period. 


National Adult Education^ 


2nd of October 1978 was the redletter day in the history of 
education. On this day a nation wide programme of Adult Edu- 
cation was launched on a war basis. Ministry of Edueation and 
Social Welfare published a booklet regarding the policy of Adult 
Education and its programme. We are reproducing the same for 
the readers and teachers educators. 

Exclusion of a vast majority of the people from the process 
of education is a most disturbing aspect of educational and social 
planning. This has been uppermost in the consideration of the 
present Government ever since it assumed office in March, 1977. 
While determined efforts must be made to universalies elementary 
education upto the age of 14 year, educational facilities must be 
extended to adult population to remedy their educational deprivi- 
ation and to enable them to develop their potentiality. Indeed, 
universalisation of elementary education and of adult literacy are 
mutually inter-dependent. 

2. The Government have resolved to wage a clearly-con- 
ceived, well-planned and relentless struggle against illiteracy to 
enable the masses to play an active role in social and cultural 
change. Literacy ought to be recognised as an integral part 
of an individual’s personaliiy. The present thinking on adult 
education is bassed on the assumptions ; (a) that illiteracy is a 
serious impediment to an individual's growth and to country’s 
socio-economic progress; (b) that education, is not coterminus 
with schooling but takes place in most work and the life situations; 

(c) that learning, working and living are inseparable and each 
acquires a meaning only when correlated with others; (d) that 

1 National Adult Education Programme. An Outline-Ministry of Edu- 
cation and Social Welfare. Govt, of India New Delhi 1978. The author is 
grateful to the Govt, of India to reproduce the same for the benefit of readers. 

National Adult Education Programme 23\ 

the means by which people are involved in the process of develop- 
ment are at least as important as the ends; and (e) that the 
illiterate and the poor can rise to their own liberation through 
literacy, dialogue and action. 

3. Adult Education should emphasise imparting of literacy 
skills to persons belonging to the economically and socially dep- 
rived sections of society. Many amongst them have grown up in 
a culturaly rich environment where learning has been through the 
spoken word transmitted from generation to generation. The 
adult education programmes must respond to their cultural and 
intellectual level and build upon the innate artistic perceptions 
and skill in crafts. However, motivation for sustained partici- 
pation in literacy and follow-up programmes is an issue which 
needs to be faced. In this context, stress should be laid on 
learning rather than teaching, on use of the spoken language in 
literacy programmes, on harnessing the mass-media and the cul- 
tural environment. Motivation also depends on an awareness 
among the participants that they can transform their destinies 
and that the adult education programmes will lead to advancement 
of their functional capability for the realisation of this objective. 
Moreover, a literacy programme unrelated to the working and 
living conditions of the learners, to the challenges of the environ- 
ment and the developmental needs of the country cannot secure 
an active participation of the learners; nor can it be an instru- 
ment of development and progress. Adult Education, therefore, 
while emphasising acquisition of literacy skills should also be ;- 

relevant to the environment and learners’ needs ; 

Flexible regarding duration, time, location, instruc- 
tional arrangements etc. ; 

diversified in regard to curriculum, teaching and 
learning meterials and methods; and 

_ systematic in all aspects or organisation. 

4 Highest priority in adult education needs to be given to 
the illiterate persons. In the post-independence penod the achie- 
L In field of literacy have been far from satisfactory, 
ins he te onttele'ey was I per cent which rose to 34.45 
per cent (excluding age-group 0-4) in 1971 Yet owing to 
population increase and half-heartedness 

number of illiterate persons has risen from 247 million in 

232 Kothari Commission 

lo 307 million in 1971. According to the Census of 1971 the 
total number of illiterate persons above 14 years of age is 
209'5 million of which 97' 1 million are in the age-group 15—35, 
which is likely to be about 100 million at present. A massive 
programme should be launched to cover this vast segment of 
population in 15—35 age-group as far as possible within five years 
of its launching. This implies organisation of special programmes 
for women and for persons belonging to Scheduled Castes and 
Scheduled Tribes. The regions which have a concentration of 
illiteracy will also require special attention. 

5. While the conceptual position slated in paragraphs 2 and 
3 needs emphasis, the need to view the programme as a mass 
movement must also be underlined. For the organisational point 
of view it is of utmost importance that elaborate preparations are 
made before launching this massive programme. Identification 
and motivation of the instructoi's, preparation of curriculum and 
teaching/learning materials and training have been the main areas 
of deficiency in adult education programmes in the past. A satis- 
factory level of preparedness in these areas must be reached be- 
fore the programme is to be launched. Besides, adult education 
must cease to be a concern only of the educational authority. It 
should be an indispensable input in all sectors of development, 
particularly where participation of the beneficiaries is crucial to 
the fulfilment of development objectives. A pre-requisite of an 
adult education movement is that all agencies. Governmental, 
voluntary, private and public sector industry, institutions of for- 
mal education etc. should lend strength to it. Voluntary agencies 
have a special role to play and necessary steps shall have to be 
taken to secure their full involvement. Instructional work shall 
have to be done by the teachers, students and unemployed men 
and women. It would be of great advantage if unemployed or 
under-employed youth having the potentiality to organise adult 
education programmes are provided necessary training and then 
entrusted with the responsibility for organising such programmes. 
To ensure effectiveness and systematic analysis of the problems, 
the programmes should have built-in mechanisms for monitoring 
and evaluation as well as for applied research. 

6. All programmes of adult education and literacy must be 
followed up by effective arrangements for continuing education— 
which would include library services, group discussions and other 

National Adult Education Programme 233 

forms of organised learning, reactivation of group cultural activi- 
ties and festivals, and community action. 

7. Adequate financial and administrative support will be 
essential for organisation of the massive programme. Provision 
shall have to be made for a programme comprising literacy as 
well as environmental and social education, extending to appro- 
ximately 300-350 hours or about 9 months, and also taking into 
account other costs. The required resources shall have to be 
provided by the Government, local bodies, voluntary agencies, 
trade and industry etc. A realistic assessment should be made 
of the size and capability of the administrative and professional 
apparatus which would be necessary for the programme and neces- 
sary steps taken to create it. 

8. In addition to organising a massive programme for adult 
illiterates, it is necessary to provide special programmes for special 
groups based on their special needs. For example, programmes 
are needed for. 

~ the rural youth to train them in the scientific methods 
suited for small scale production, both in agriculture 
and industry, and in rural leadership ; 

— urban workers to improve their skills, to prepare 
them for securing their rightful claims and for par- 
ticipation in management ; 

— Government functionaries such as office clerks, field 
extension workers and police and arms forces per- 
sonnel to upgrade their competence ,• 

— employees of commercial establishments such as 
banks and insurance companies to improve their per- 
formance ; 

— housewives to inculcate a better understanding 
of family life problems and women’s status in 

Togramraes for these and several other categories of persons 
ould be organised through class-room participation, corres- 
)ondence cources or mass media, or by a combination of all 

9. It is of the greatest importance that implementation of 
idult education programmes is decentralised. It would also be 
lecessary to establish agencies of coordination and catalisation. 

234 Kothari Commission 

A National Board of Adult Education has been established for 
this purpose by the Central Government and similar Boards 
should be established at tlic State levels. Suitable agencies should 
also be created at the field level for coordination and for invol- 
vement of the various agencies in the programme. 

An Outline 

This paper aims at delineation of operational details for giving 
cfifcct to the Policy Statement on Adult Education. This is not 
an attempt at laying down of rigid guidelines, but rather an ex- 
ploration of alternatives, ft may be recapitulated that the ob- 
jective is to organise adult education programmes, with literacy 
as an indispensable component, for approximately 100 million 
illiterate persons mainly in the age-group 15 — 35 with a view to 
providing to them skills for self-directed learning leading to self- 
reliant and active role in their own development and in the deve- 
lopment of their environment. The conceptual position and 
general strategy is spelt out in the Policy Statement on Adult 
Education, which should be read as a part of this document. 
Phasing of the Programme 

NAEP was inaugurated on 2nd October, 1978. However, 
for all practical purposes the period until the end of March, 1979 
would be treated as the period of intensive preparation. Prepara- 
tory action would include the following areas : 

(1) Substantial stepping up of the programme from the 
existing level of approximately 0.5 million to at least 
1.5 million in 1978-79. 

(2) Creation of an environment favourable to the laun- 
ching of NAEP. 

(3) Preparation of case studies of some' significant past 
experience, particularly those where the failures or 
successes have a bearing on the planning and imple- 
mentation of NAEP. 

(4) Detailed planning of the various segments of the pro- 
gramme by appointment of expert groups — this 
would include preparation of detailed plans for each 
State and Union Territory. 

(5) Establishment of necesary structures for administration 
and Coordination and necessary modification of proce- 

National Adult Education jProgramme HS 

dures and patterns. 

(6j Identification of various agencies, official and non-ofiicial, 
to be involved in the programme and taking necessary 
measures to facilitate the needed level of their involve- 


(7) Undertaking of necessary exercises to clarify the required 
competencies, particularly in literacy and numeracy, 
which would form part of all field programmes. 

(8) Development of capabilty in all State for preparation of 
diversified and need-based teaching/learning materials as 
well as making available teaching/learning materials for 
starting the programme. 

(9) Development of training methodologies, preparation of 
training manuals as well as actual training of personnel 
at various levels to launch the programme. 

(10) Creation of a satisfactory system of evaluation and 
monitoring as well as the required applied research base. 
Preparatory action will, however, not conclude at the end of 
1978-79, Action on almost all the items listed above would need 
to be taken for at least a year even after launching ofNAEP. 
Indeed, in a series preparatory action for the following year, based 

on conclusion of the Programme. 

The annual phasing of coverage will have to be worked out 
on the basis of the level of achievement reached m a preceding 
vear > The measure of preparation would include the probable 
Lhievement of target. The success of the Programme will de- 
Tn. the manner in which the beginning is made in the first 
of vears and every effort shall be made to extend the 
couple 0 y ^g^i^ately 100 million illiterate persons by 

fh?endTf 1983-84. The present projections of targets are as 

236 Kotliari Commission 

II needs to be clarified that these arc cfTectivc targets and, even 
if a very efficient programme is organised, there could be about 
one-third wastage and the programme shall have to be organised 
keeping this in view. 

What is aimed is that by 1983-84 a capability to organise 
adult education programmes for 35 million persons would be 
built up. At that stage it would be necessary to diversify the 
programmes — the aim then would be to strive fora learning 
society in which life-long education is a cherished goal. 

Creation of favourable environment 

The results of the Experimental World Literacy Programme 
as will as the experience of the countries where illiteracy eradic- 
tion programmes have successfully been implemented show that 
a systematic effort must be made for creation of an environment 
favourable for launching of such a massive programme. No 
country, however, perhaps with the exception of China, faced 
the problem of illiteracy of the magnitude we are facing. And 
hardly any country has had such a long tradition of respect for 
learning and knowledge, or the vast resources which we have. 
What is necessary, it is indeed a pre-requisite for motivation of 
all persons to be involved in NAEP, is to engender a spirit of 
hope and confidence. The Prime Minister and the Education 
Minister have already declared that the highest prioi'ity needs 
to be given to adult education. Leaders of all political parties 
in Parliament have wholeheartedly endorsed the programme and 
have given assurance of support. This, it is hoped, would be 
followed up by leaders in various other walks of life such as 
trade unions, trade and industry, students and youth. A critical 
role can be played, in this context by the mass-media— films, TV, 
radio, newspapers, publicity posters, etc. This would require 
an ingenious and co-ordinated effort, in which official and non- 
official media shall have to converge to serve the objectives of 
the programme. In addition, a number of other methods could 
be explored, including holding of seminars and symposia, cele- 
bration of the World Literacy Day in schools and colleges, etc. 
The various ways in which an environment can be created shall 
have to be studied in detail and necessary measures taken an soon 
as possible. 

National Adult Education Programme 237 

The Approach 

The two most basic problems faced by our country arc 
poverty and illiteracy. One obliges a vast mass of our citizens 
to live under conditions of want and degradation, the other hinders 
opening of the doors of development and affects the ability of the 
poor to overcome their predicament. Indeed, the problem of 
poverty and illiteracy are two aspects of the same stupendous 
problem and the struggle to overcome one without at the same 
time waging a fight against the other is certain to result in aber- 
rations and disappointments. For this reasons, NAEP is visualised 
as a means to being about a fundamental change in the process of 
socio-economic development; from a situation in which the poor 
remain passive spectators at the fringe of the development activity 
to being enabled to be at its centre, and as active participants. 
The learning process involves emphasis on literacy, but not that 
only; it also stresses the importance of functional upgradation and 
of raising the level of awareness regarding their predicament 
among the poor and the illiterate. 

Our country has a distinctive value system with a tradition 
of learning— perpetuated through oral communication, fairs, fes- 
tivals and informal skill training which dates back to the earliest 
days of human civilization, enriched and harmonised over the 
centuries by the contact of divere cultures and religions. The 
distinctive feature of our cultural pattern is that production, art, 
and education are integral to each other. This must be recognised 
by the planners and organisers of all adult education programmes 
and by the learners themselves and, the same time, they must 
acquire a questioning faculty towards features which shelter 
narrowness and blind belief. 

Traditionally, distinction is made between the selective and 
the mass approaches-distinction being based on the extent of 

“verage'and quality of the programme, NAEP ,s a maaa pro- 
gramme with the quality o! and tmplementatiou of a 
fetetive programme. In faet, in relating the programme to he 
TeeS of the learners, NAEP is even more audacious than the 

eonventiona, Seed 

vieS’ a" a mas; movement, to which all sections of people and 

ofrhrJe“u™nt“Tssues in adult education planning is 

238 Kothari Commission 

motivation of tlic adult learners. Even when they can be sti- 
mulated to participate in adult education programmes initially, 
their interest is not sustained and they tend to drop out. The 
problem is particularly grave in respect of women and persons 
belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. It is 
true that if the programme has organisational flexibility and rele- 
vance of the content and methods with the felt needs and pro- 
blems of the learners, it would fulfil the pre-conditions of sus- 
rained participation of the learners Also, creation of an environ- 
ment favourable to the organisation of mass programme can act 
as an effective motivation. However, these may not suffice and 
the matter needs to be examined in a much greater detail. 

Exclusion of the vast majority of adult population from 
the organised system of education will not cease only by organi- 
sation of one-time adult education programme. The prespective 
of life-long learning, and provision of arrangements therefore, 
shall have to be kept in view in planning and preparing for 
NAEP. From this point of view the NAEP will not conclude 
with the end of the quinquennium. Systematic follow up pro- 
grammes shall have to be organised almost with the beginning 
of the NAEP — they would comprise a well organised system of 
mass production of book and their dissemination and inclusion 
in the coramunicational circuit of the neo-literates. It would be 
desirable to follow up adult education programmes with organised 
developmental action. 

It is important that that the adult education movement should 
be closely linked with the planning strategy, which emphasises 
elimination of destitution through intensive area planning and 
by giving employment orientation to development. For this 
purpose close co-operation should be created with the dominant 
development activity of the area, whether it goes under the rubric 
of Integrated Rural Development or Integrated Tribal Develop- 
ment of Employment Oriented Area Planning or DPAP, or what- 
ever. The adult education programmes should strive to establish 
mutually supportive linkages with that developmental activity. 

Each State will decide about the comparative priority to 
be given to various agencies. However, as a broad guideline, 
it may be metioned that owing to the needs of careful local 
level planning, precedence ought to be given to voluntary agen- 
cies, In addition to voluntary agencies, a number of other 

National Adult Education Programme 239 

Agencies slialj have to be identified for implementation, these 
could include Nehru Yuvak Kendras, educational institutions, 
employers of various categories etc. The role of Government 
would primarily be to co-ordinate the activities of these various 
agencies and to fill in the gaps. In several parts of the country 
the Government may have to take almost the entire responsibility. 
Wherever it becomes necessary to do so, a beginning would be 
made with a few compact blocks. The objective would be to con- 
centrate effort in well-defined geographical area and then to 
enlarge the activity. 

In practice different agencies will organise programmes which 
would appear most relevant and feasible to them. In all cases, 
it needs to be underscored, the programmes would be expected 
to be drawn up within the framework of the Policy Statement. 
The range of the types of the programmes which may be organised 
are indicated below ; 

— Literacy with assure follow-up. 

— Conventional functional literacy. 

— Functional literacy supportive of a dominant deve- 
lopment programme. 

— Literacy with learning-cum-action groups. 

— Literacy for conscientization and formation of orga- 
nisations of the poor. 

Resource Development 

The conceptual position spelt out in the Policy Statement 
implies creation and development of a resource base of NAEP. 
The resource base should include creation of diversified and 
need-based learning materials, equipping the various categories 
of personnel for playing their role and infusion of a system of 
evaluation and research to impart dynamism to the programme. 
At the national level the Directorate of Adult Education as 
well as the various agencies of the Central Government and 
National' level voluntary agencies would form the National Re- 
source Group. The important level in resource development 
is the State Resource Centre (SRC) which, in co-operation with 
the National Resource Group and continuously interacting with 
the field, can become the focus for resource development. One 
of the important functions of the SRC is to strive for devolution 
of resource base at the district or project level. SRCs are not 
to be institutions working in isolation from other institutions, 

240 Kothari Commission 

but ralhcr as coordinal ing agency for involvement of various 
institutions and individuals having a contribution to make in 
resource development. The cfilcacy of SRCs will depend on 
the professional and technical capabilities developed by them, 
their capacity to secure and coordinate resource (of institutions 
and individuals) available in the region they purport to serve apd 
on the support provided by the State Governments concerned. 
However, the primary responsibility for resource support to 
the programme shall have to be at the district/project level. 
Resource development being of critical importance the Central 
and Slate Governments as well as other agencies should be 
willing to ptovide all necessary financial and administrative 
support for this purpose. 

Involvement of the people, i.e. the illiterate masses for whom 
this Programme is primarily meant, with resource development 
will be crucial to the authenticity of the resource base. This is 
also inherent in the conceptual position as spelt out in the Policy 
Statement. A number of practical ways shall have to be tried 
for this involvement. This would include : 

— Well-designed surveys to ascertain the learners’ 

— Realistic testing and try-out of methods and mate- 
rials by securing uninhibited reaction of the potential 

— Holding of frequent conferences and camps where 
workers in the State/District Resource Centre think 
and work with the rural people. 

— Identification of a number of articulate village youth 
and orienting them in the Programme with a view 
to elicting through them the latent as well as mani- 
fest problems of the potential learners groups. 

— Systematic involvement of persons living and work- 
ing among the rural people. 

In addition to the potential learners it is necessary that the 
Resource Centre, whether at the State level or at district level, 
secures the contribution and criticism of their work by the super- 
visors and instructors. Appropriate arrangements shall have to 
be worked out to systematise this, without however letting it 

National Adult Education Programme 241. 

get into sterotypes. What is necessary is to always remember 
that NAEP should be dynamically linked with the existential 
needs of the learners and for this purpose it is necessary to 
organise a two-way traffic, from the experts and administrators 
to the learners and the other way round. 

The various resource components may be identified as 
follows : 

Teaching-learning materials — ^The initial exercise in this con- 
nection shall have to be about identification of learners’ needs. 
Detailed curriculum, indicating among other things the expected 
learning outcomes, shall have to be spelt out on the basis of the 
identified learning needs. On the basis of the curriculum and 
after necessary testing, teaching aids and learning materials shall 
have to be prepared with the greatest care. The Policy Statement 
makes reference to imparting of literacy skills in the spoken 
language. Without taking this to an absurd limit, it should be 
possible to organise learning in the spoken language, wherever 
necessary with bridges built for the learner to acquire facility in 
the regional language. Since it may not be possible to develop 
teaching-learning materials at the district/project level within the 
next one year, as an interim measure SRCs will prepare 
materials in standard regional or sub-regional languages/dialects. 
By the second or third year it should be possible to prepare 
material at the district/project level. 

Training— The categories for whom training shall have to be 
provided would include; (i) Key functionaries at the national 
and state levels, (ii) Professionals and experts in specific areas 
such as curriculum construction, preparation of teaching learning 
materials, training, evaluation etc. (iii) Functionaries at the 
district, project and block levels, (iv) Field level supervisors, 
(v) Adult education centre instructors. 

Training of key personnel at the national, state and district 

levels has to be the responsibility of the Central and State Govern- 
ments SRCs should be able to co-ordinate training programmes 
for project and block level functionaries as well as for supervisors 
and the responsibility for organisation of training programmes 
1 for the instructors of adult education centres shall have to rest 
with the agency responsible for implementation of the programme 
rthe field level. Various alternatives shall have to be explored 
regarding duration, comparative emphasis on one-time and re-. 

242 Kothari Commission 

current training, methods of training etc. Unless unavoidable, 
new training institutions should not be set up; the existing 
ones should be encouraged to develop capability for training 
of various categories of functionaries involved with NAEP. 
Universities and other institutions of higher education may have 
an important role to play in this behalf. Generally speaking, 
the agencies responsible for training should function as co- 
ordinators to secure the assistance of various institutions and in- 
dividuals who can contribute in organisation of satisfactory train- 
ing programmes. 

Monitoring, evaluation and applied research — A mass edu- 
cation programme, inevitably, faces the risk of considerable 
wastage and misreporting. In this connection the importance of 
systematic monitoring and education cannot be exaggerated. It 
must permeate the entire programme and should provide feed- 
back for introducing necessary correctives from time to time. It 
is also important to have inbuilt arrangements for applied and 
co-ordinated research so that the experience of NAEP is syste- 
matically analysed and provides guidelines for furture action. The 
Central Government and State Governments are naturally inte- 
rested in systematic monitoring. Universities and institutions of 
higher education as well as SRCs will have an important role to 
play in evaluation and applied research. Monitoring and evaluation 
mechanisms should get build at the district and project levels also, 
for it is mainly there that the feedback has to be used for introduc- 
tion of correctives. 

The “instructional” Agencies 

The governing consideration in assigning responsibility for 
instructional arrangements should be the suitability of the persons 
concerned to organise programmes with a grasp of the conceptual 
standpoint and with a sprit of commitment. The various categories 
of persons who could be assigned instructional responsibility 
would include the following ; 

(a) School teachers — In spite of several obvious limitation 
based on the experience of their performance, particularly 
authoritarianism and rigidities connected with the formal 
system, the teachers may have to be one of the main agencies for 
organisation of instructional arrangements in NAEP. Although, 
ultimately work in an adult education centre could be made an 
essential part of the duties of the teachers, for the present it would 

National Adult Education Programme ^43 

be desirable to keep this entirely voluntary. Even amongst persons 
who volunteer to take this responsibility, a selection may have 
to be made of persons who can be expected to be genuinely 
committed to this programme. It would also be fair to pro- 
vide an honorarium of Rs. 50/- per month for this work. Involve- 
ment of school teachers can be facilitated if the support of their 
professional organisations is secured. 

(b) Students — Either as a part of the National Service 
Scheme, or in any other appropriate manner, students in institut- 
ions of higher education may provide a valuable agency for 
organisation of adult education centres. For this purpose it 
would be necessary to involve the teachers of these institutions 
also. It would be necessary to re-think regarding the present 
timing of academic sessions, the system of credits, certification etc. 
Student involvement in this programme should be voluntary, but 
the leaders in the university system shall have to create an atmos- 
phere in which students find this work worthwhile and satisfying, 

(c) Village Youth— There are a large number of unemployed 
or under-employed village youth with some education who could 
be entrusted this responsibility after they are given a carefully 
planned training for necessary upgradation of their academic level 
and an orientation for this responsibility. Besides, village youth 
who are not unemploped or under-employed but who have had 
some education could also be motivated to function as organisers 
of adult education centres. Work among women and tribal people 
can be greatly faciliated if persons drawn from their groups are 
re-introduced as peer leaders to organise the adult education 
centres. Such persons can continue to pursue their vocation and 
can be paid an appropriate monthly stipend. The unemployed 
or under-employed youth, who take up this programme on more 
or less full-time basis, could also take responsibility for organ- 
isation of non-formal education centres for pre-school children or 
for 6—14 age-group. Apart from providing a most suitable cate- 
gory of adult education instructors, this could also help generate 
a new class of rural leadership and may also contribute to the 
reduction of rural unemployment. 

(d) Ex-servicemen and other retired personnel- This category 
of persons can pluy an important role in urban as well as rural 
areas. Retired personnel do need financial supplementation of 
their income : equally important, they need an occupation to keep 
themselves busy. Although there are certain obt'ious limitations 

244 Kothari Commission 

regarding their capacity to organise programmes which would be 
in conformity witli the conceptual position stated in the Policy 
Statement, they have the advantage of their experience and the 
respect in which they arc generally held in the community. 

(c) Field level Government and other functionaries — It 
might be possible to involve functionaries such as the village 
health worker, gram-sevika, bal-sevika, VLW, functionaries of 
Co-operative Societies and Village Panchayats etc. 

(f) Voluntary Social Workers — Particularly among the 
urban areas, there are large number of persons who are willing 
to make their contribution to community development. The 
energies of such persons should be tapped and special arrange- 
ments made for their involvement. 

The Implementation Agencies 

The Government will naturally have to gear up to shoulder 
its responsibility in NAEP. On the basis of review, the existing 
programmes run by Government agencies shall have to be re- 
cast. It seems desirable that rather than spreading the pro- 
gramme thin in all parts of all the districts in the country, in the 
beginning effort should be concentrated in compact areas. The 
size and the programmes of the Ministry of Education shall be 
substantially enlarged with a view to widening the involvement 
of various agencies. However, a mass movement which would 
extend to such a large segment of population cannot be organised 
by one Ministry or department. Every effort must be made to 
involve other Ministries and departments with a view to sharing 
the responsibility for organisation of adult education programmes. 
The other Ministries/departments would be encouraged to or- 
ganise such programmes, with a component of functional literacy, 
as well as to supplement the learning activity being undertaken 
through the educational authority. It would be. necessary for 
those Ministries/departments to set apart within their sectoral 
budgets funds or such adult education programmes. Whether 
the programme forms part of a Central scheme, or is administer- 
ed through any other agencies, the State Government will have to 
play a most important role. For all practical purposes it can be 
said that the implementation responsibility will rest squarely with 
the State Governments. The State Governments will have to 
reappraise the adult education programmes they have been run- 
ning in the past and steps will have to be taken to appropriately 

National Adult Education Programme 245 

modify and strengthen them. While the primary responsibility 
of co-ordination and implementation will rest with the State Gov- 
ernments, the Central Government should be concerned not only 
with policy formulation and issue of general guidelines but should 
also oversee that the programmes are implemented by the State 
Governments in accordance with the Policy Statement. 

The programme which gives importance to flexibility and 
diversity in organisation as well as its content can be best imple- 
mented through voluntary agencies. At present the involvement 
of voluntary agencies is somewhat limited and systematic attempts 
shall have to be made (a) to involve all voluntary agencies 
working at present in the field of adult education or haying the 
potentiality to do so, and (b) to create circumstances for emer- 
gence of new agencies, particularly in areas where such agencies 
are few. It is also necessary to recognise the partnership role 
of voluntary agencies and it would be desirable to consult them 
in decision making at all levels, particularly in matters which 
might affect the work of those agencies, as well as the procedures 
for making grant shall have to be reviewed. 

Whether or not NAEP becomes a mass movement will be 
determined by the extent to which youth and students can be 
motivated to commit themselves to this programme. It might 
be comparatively simple to review the functioning of the Nehru 
Yuvak Kendras and to concentrate their effort on adult educa- 
tion Similarly, young men and women who have completed 
their formal education and who feel stirred to participate in this 
programme would be natural partners in this endeavour. The 
critical group is the students in universities and other institutions 
of higher education. For too long the universities have theoreti- 
callv espoused about desirability of contact with the community. 
The NAEP provides a challenging situation for the universities 
and colleges to overcome their seclusion and to enter the main- 
stlmofLss education. What is needed is that adult education 
houM cease to be the concern of only one department, bnt should 
„™l“ all members of faculty and of course, the students. Ind,. 

T ere already discernible that the university system is pte- 
pS°ng i"=lf for this massive involvement and to make necessary 

reorganisations in its priorities. 

The employers whether in private sector or public, must 

play an important role in the spread of adult education among 

246 Kotiiari Commission 

tlicir employees. It might be appropriate, in due course, to 
make organisation of adult education programmes obligatory for 
all employers. Meanwhile, through organisations of trade and 
industry and other employing agencies an effective beginning 
could be made. The Government should provide leadership by 
setting apart funds for this purpose in the public sector uuder- 
takings as well as in construction w'orks. The resultant reduction 
in the hours of work and marginally higher expenditure would 
be adequately rewarded by improvement in the quality of per- 
formance of the workers and by their positive participation in 
the developmental activity. Education of the workers in the 
organised sector can be greatly facilitated if the trade unions are 
actively involved in this programme. 

The local bodies, such as municipalities and panchayati raj 
institutions, have been playing an important role in the field of 
formal education as well as social education. These agencies, 
which have civic and developmental functions, have the advantage 
of being in touch with the people — ^their everyday problems as 

well as their needs and, therefore, they should be expected- to 

participate in implementation of NAEP. 

Planning, Administration and Supervision 

This is the first time that the Government have decided to 
launch a well-planned programme of adult education for such 
a large segment of the illiterate population. Planning for such 
a programme and its implementation will require support by a 
large variety of persons including social workers, perspective 
planners, management experts, systems analysis, inter-disciplinary 
terms of academics and, of course, adult-educators. Exercise in 
planning have to take place not only in the Central and State 
Governments but also in local bodies, voluntary agencies, uni- 
versities, professional organisations of teachers etc. The Govern- 
ment, however, have to play a leading role in involvement of the 
various individuals, institutions and organisations. It is also 
necessary to set up appropriate agencies for coordination and 
catalisation at the State and district levels. For this purpose 
State and District Boards of Adult Education should be set up as 
soon as possible. 

The existing administrative structures at the Central, State 
and field levels are altogether insufficient for NAEP. A careful 

National Adult Education Programme 247 

examination has already been initiated to suggest the type of 
administrative structures which would be most appropriate for 
the task. Only broad indications can be given for the present : 

1. Central Government : The set-up in the Ministry would be 

appropriately strengthened keeping in view the respon- 
sibility to be assigned to the Adult Education Division. 
The Directorate of Adult Education will have to subs- 
■ tantially enlarge its activities and necessary, where- 
withal shall have to be provided for it to be able to 
play the expected role. • 

2. State level : Immediate steps are necessary to set up State 

level administrative and planning machinary with an 
independent Director, or an Additional Director with 
the Director of Education at the helm. Necessary 
supporting staff shall also have to be provided to the 
State level organisation. Each State Government 
would be advised to examine the need for a separate 
division to deal with adult education in the Education 
Department of the State Secretariat. 

3. District and block level : The district selected for the 

programmes may have to have Adult District Edu- 
cation Officer with necessary supporting staff. Emp- 
hasis shall have to be laid on adequacy of staff for 
each project, for administration and supervision, as 
well as for providing the necessary technical support. 

4. Voluntary agencies : Necessary support shall have to be 
provided to national and State level voluntary agen- 
cies, State Resource Centres etc. to set up necessary 
machinary to enable them to maks their contribution 

to NAEP. 

A programme of the magnitude must provide adequate arran- 
rements for supervision and guidance. The supervisor should 
lot be an Inspector in the traditional meaning of the word but 
I specially selected professional with an aptitude to facilitate the 
vork of the incharge of the Adult Education Centre. 

One of the major deficiencies being faced by Government as 
,vell as voluntary agencies is the absence of professional cadres 
3f adult educators. Existing facilities m universities for prepra- 
ion of such personnels are extremely limited and there is a case 

248 Kothari Commission 

for their expansion. Training programmes of varying varieties 
for professional development shall also have to be organised by 
Government, universities and voluntary agencies. In addition to 
training, it would also be necessary to examine the pay structure 
of the professional workers involved in adult education pro- 
gramme. As far as possible, it would be desirable to ensure that 
persons coopted into adult education system continue to grow 
and progress within the system rather than being pushed out of 

Financing the NAEP 

The past exerience has shown that owing to pressures of 
various types it becomes necessary for the State Governments 
to divert funds provided for adult education either to other pro- 
grammes of education or to other sectors of development. It is 
therefore, necessary to devise an assangement under which funds 
earmarked for adult education cannot be so diverted. At the 
same time, it has to be fully appreciated that the responsibility 
for planning and implementation of the programme in a State 
must rest with the State Governments, with the Central Govern- 
ment being assigned the responsibility for wider involvement of 
voluntary agencies, try-out of innovative programmes etc. 

In addition to the mechanics of funding, it is necessary to 
emphasise adequacy. A Group of Experts drawn from the 
Planning Commission and the Ministry has come to the conclu- 
sion that the per learner cost would be Rs. 60, excluding the 
expenditure on Central and State level administrative structures, 
evaluation and monitoring and research and innovation. The 
Group has calculated this cost with reference to the number of 
persons enrolled and not those who will successfully complete 
the progarmme. The number of those who will do so may be 
about to-thirds the number of persons enrolled. However, the 
cost of some of the programmes may be somewhat less becuse 
of shorter duration of some'of the urban programmes and volun- 
tary contributions. It would be safe to assume that the per 
learner cost would not be less than Rs. 80. The expenditure 
on Central and State administrations, evaluation and research 
etc. would be approximately 10 per cent of the total arrived at 
on the basis of aggregate of per learner cost. Adequate funds on 
the basis of these calculations will have to be provided. 

National Adult Education Programme 249 

In addition to the expenditure involved in organisation of 
adult education programmes, provision shall have to be made, 
of neo-literates and persons who have acquired literacy in the 
formal system of education. It would be reasonable to provide 
an amount of approximately 20 per cent of the total expenditure 
for this purpose. 

International Cooperation 

The frontiers of poverty and illiteracy extend far beyond 
national boundaries. The experiences and insights gained by one 
country ought to be shared with other countries by mutual 
exchange and continuing communication. Naturally, we cannot 
but be conscious of our own financial and human resources, 
which are not too limited when something so vital for the 
nation’s destiny is at shoke. In formulating NAEP and its 
implementation cooperation should be pledged to UNESCO and 
other instrumentalities of international cooperation based on 
mutual respect and equality. However, audacious the objectives 
of NAEP be, we must begin humble with a spirit to learn from 
those who have been harbingers in this field and from those who 
have developed special capabilities. 



1. Report of the Education Commission (1964-66) : Education and 

National Development . 

Ministry of Education, New Delhi, 1966. 

2. Agarwal, J. C. : Major Recommendations of the Education 

Commission, New Delhi, 1966 

3. Bhatnagar, Sttresh : Kothari Commission — Vivechanatmak 

Adhyayan. Meerut, 

4. Pathak, P. D. & Tyagi, G. S. D. : Kothari Commission 

Sujhava Aur Samiksha, Agra, 1967. 

5. National Policy on Education : Publication no. 807, Ministry 

of Education, Govt, of India. 

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October 1966, Dec., 1966. 

2. Education (English) : Education Office 12, Khurshed Bagh, 

Lucknow, Nos. 7, 8, 12; July, 1966; August 
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(various dates). 

5. Journal of Educational Research & Extension : — 

Sri Ram Krishan Mission Vidhyalaya Teachers’ 
College, Coimbatore, Vol. Ill, Not. 2, 3, Oct. 
1966 ; Jan. 1967. 

6. Nayi Talim : Sarva Seva Sangh, Rajghat Varanasi, 

September ; Oct. ; Dec., 1966. 

7. Naya Shikshak : Directorate of Elementary and Secondary 

Education of Rajasthan, Bikaner, January, 

8. NIE Journal ; National Council of Educational Research and 

Training, Aurobindoo Marg New Delhi-11, 
Sep., Nov., 1966. • 

National Adult Education Programme 251 

P. Patriot (English Daily) : Delhi. 

10. Sahitya Parichaya (Hindi) ; Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra, 

March, 1967. 

11. Shivira (Hindi Monthly) ; Directorate of Elementary and 

Secondary Education, Rajasthan-Bikaner, 
October, 1966. 

12. School of Education : The University of Michigan Bulletin, 

Vol. 7, No. 1. 

13. The Progress of Education (English) : A. V. Griha Prakashan 

1786 Sada Shiv Peth Poona-2. 

14. The Teacher To-day & Tomorrow : Publication No. 754, 

Ministry of Education, New Delhi, 1966. 

15. Times of India (English) Daily : Times of India Press, Delhi. 

16. Teacher Education : Indian Association of Teacher Educations. 

New Delhi, Vol. IX, No. 3. 


1. Draft Five year Plan 1978-83. Government of India Planning 

Commission New Delhi. 

2. National Adult Education Programme. Govt, of India. 

Ministry of Education New Delhi.